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Individual Behavior, Group Behar , Company Behavior



WEBFFIRS 05/26/2017 12:59:13 Page v

In Memory of Warren Bennis

Exemplar, Mentor, and Friend

With Appreciation for All He Gave Us



WEBFFIRS 05/26/2017 12:59:13 Page vi



WEBFTOC 05/26/2017 3:10:35 Page vii


Preface ix Acknowledgments xv

PAR T ON E Making Sense of Organizations 1

1 Introduction: The Power of Reframing 3

2 Simple Ideas, Complex Organizations 25

PAR T TWO The Structural Frame 43

3 Getting Organized 45

4 Structure and Restructuring 71

5 Organizing Groups and Teams 93

PAR T T H R E E The Human Resource Frame 113

6 People and Organizations 115

7 Improving Human Resource Management 135

8 Interpersonal and Group Dynamics 157





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PAR T FOU R The Political Frame 179

9 Power, Con! ict , and Coalit ion 181

10 The Manager as Polit ic ian 201

11 Organizations as Polit ical Arenas and Polit ical Agents 217

PAR T F I V E The Symbolic Frame 235

12 Organizational Symbols and Culture 239

13 Culture in Action 265

14 Organization as Theater 279

PAR T S I X Improving Leadership Practice 295

15 Integrating Frames for Effective Practice 297

16 Reframing in Action: Opportunities and Peri ls 313

17 Reframing Leadership 325

18 Reframing Change in Organizations 359

19 Reframing Ethics and Spirit 385

20 Bringing It Al l Together: Change and Leadership in Action 399

Epilogue: Artistry, Choice, and Leadership 419 Appendix: The Best of Organizational Studies 423 Bibliography 427 The Authors 467 Name Index 469 Subject Index 481

viii Contents



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This is the sixth release of a work that began in 1984 asModern Approaches to Understanding and Managing Organizations and became Reframing

Organizations in 1991. We’re grateful to readers around the world who have told us that our books gave them ideas that make a difference—at work and elsewhere in their lives.

It is again time for an update, and we’re grati!ed to be back by popular demand. Like everything else, organizations and their leadership challenges continue to evolve rapidly, and scholars are running hard to keep pace. This edition tries to capture the current frontiers of both knowledge and art.

The four-frame model, with its view of organizations as factories, families, jungles, and temples, remains the book’s conceptual heart. But we have incorporated new research and revised our case examples extensively to keep up with the latest developments. We have updated a feature we inaugurated in the third edition: “Greatest Hits in Organization Studies.” These features offer pithy summaries of key ideas from the some of the most in”uential works in the scholarly literature (as indicated by a citation analysis, described in the Appendix at the end of the book). As a counterpoint to the scholarly works, we have also added occasional summaries of management bestsellers. Scholarly and professional litera- ture often run on separate tracks, but the two streams together provide a fuller picture than either alone, and we have tried to capture the best of both in our work.

Life in organizations has produced many stories and examples, and there is new material throughout the book. At the same time, we worked zealously to minimize bloat by tracking down and expunging every redundant sentence, marginal concept, or extraneous example. We’ve also tried to keep it fun. Collective life is an endless source of vivid examples as entertaining as they are instructive, and we’ve sprinkled them throughout the text.




WEBFPREF 05/26/2017 3:11:2 Page x

We apologize to anyone who !nds that an old favorite fell to the cutting-room “oor, but we hope readers will !nd the book an even clearer and more ef!cient read.

As always, our primary audience is managers and leaders. We have tried to answer the question, what do we know about organizations and leadership that is genuinely relevant and useful to practitioners as well as scholars? We have worked to present a large, complex body of theory, research, and practice as clearly and simply as possible. We tried to avoid watering it down or presenting simplistic views of how to solve managerial problems. This is not a self-help book !lled with ready-made answers. Our goal is to offer not solutions but powerful and provocative ways of thinking about opportunities and pitfalls.

We continue to focus on both management and leadership. Leading and managing are different, but they’re equally important. The difference is nicely summarized in an aphorism from Bennis and Nanus: “Managers do things right. Leaders do the right thing.” If an organization is overmanaged but underled, it eventually loses any sense of spirit or purpose. A poorly managed organization with a strong, charismatic leader may soar brie”y—only to crash shortly thereafter. Malpractice can be as damaging and unethical for managers and leaders as for physicians.

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