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WEBFFIRS 05/26/2017 12:59:13 Page ii

Reframing Organizations, Sixth Edition is also available in WileyPLUS Learning Space—an interactive and collaborative learning environment that provides insight into learning strengths and weaknesses through a combination of dynamic and engaging course materials. With WileyPLUS Learning Space, students make deeper connections and get better grades by annotating course material and by collaborating with other students in the course.

With WileyPLUS Learning Space, you will !nd:

• A restructured digital text that features interactive content, videos, assignments, and social networking tools that enable interaction with instructors and encourage discussion between students

• Interactive features include a gradable test bank, videos to engage students with differing organizational scenarios, interactive graphics, practice questions to reinforce key concepts, exercise assignments, and a Leadership Orientations Self-Assessment to help students understand the way they instinctively think about and approach leadership

• The course also includes a full Instructor’s Manual, including chapter-by- chapter teaching notes, lecture slides, sample syllabi, and other support materials

For more information and to request a free trial, visit http://www.wiley.com//college/ sc/wpls/

An updated online Instructor’s Guide with lecture slides and a Your Leadership Orientations Self-Assessment is also available at http://eu.wiley.com/WileyCDA/ WileyTitle/productCd-1119281814.html



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WEBFFIRS 05/26/2017 12:59:13 Page iv

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ISBN 9781119281818 (cloth); ISBN 9781119281825 (pbk.); ISBN 9781119281832 (ePDF); ISBN 9781119281849 (ePub)

Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

understand how people behave

Motivation workers : work environment, company culture , promotion

fell eapprioiate ,


Individual Behavior, Group Behar , Company Behavior



WEBFFIRS 05/26/2017 12:59:13 Page v

In Memory of Warren Bennis

Exemplar, Mentor, and Friend

With Appreciation for All He Gave Us



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Preface ix Acknowledgments xv

PAR T ON E Making Sense of Organizations 1

1 Introduction: The Power of Reframing 3

2 Simple Ideas, Complex Organizations 25

PAR T TWO The Structural Frame 43

3 Getting Organized 45

4 Structure and Restructuring 71

5 Organizing Groups and Teams 93

PAR T T H R E E The Human Resource Frame 113

6 People and Organizations 115

7 Improving Human Resource Management 135

8 Interpersonal and Group Dynamics 157





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PAR T FOU R The Political Frame 179

9 Power, Con! ict , and Coalit ion 181

10 The Manager as Polit ic ian 201

11 Organizations as Polit ical Arenas and Polit ical Agents 217

PAR T F I V E The Symbolic Frame 235

12 Organizational Symbols and Culture 239

13 Culture in Action 265

14 Organization as Theater 279

PAR T S I X Improving Leadership Practice 295

15 Integrating Frames for Effective Practice 297

16 Reframing in Action: Opportunities and Peri ls 313

17 Reframing Leadership 325

18 Reframing Change in Organizations 359

19 Reframing Ethics and Spirit 385

20 Bringing It Al l Together: Change and Leadership in Action 399

Epilogue: Artistry, Choice, and Leadership 419 Appendix: The Best of Organizational Studies 423 Bibliography 427 The Authors 467 Name Index 469 Subject Index 481

viii Contents



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This is the sixth release of a work that began in 1984 asModern Approaches to Understanding and Managing Organizations and became Reframing

Organizations in 1991. We’re grateful to readers around the world who have told us that our books gave them ideas that make a difference—at work and elsewhere in their lives.

It is again time for an update, and we’re grati!ed to be back by popular demand. Like everything else, organizations and their leadership challenges continue to evolve rapidly, and scholars are running hard to keep pace. This edition tries to capture the current frontiers of both knowledge and art.

The four-frame model, with its view of organizations as factories, families, jungles, and temples, remains the book’s conceptual heart. But we have incorporated new research and revised our case examples extensively to keep up with the latest developments. We have updated a feature we inaugurated in the third edition: “Greatest Hits in Organization Studies.” These features offer pithy summaries of key ideas from the some of the most in”uential works in the scholarly literature (as indicated by a citation analysis, described in the Appendix at the end of the book). As a counterpoint to the scholarly works, we have also added occasional summaries of management bestsellers. Scholarly and professional litera- ture often run on separate tracks, but the two streams together provide a fuller picture than either alone, and we have tried to capture the best of both in our work.

Life in organizations has produced many stories and examples, and there is new material throughout the book. At the same time, we worked zealously to minimize bloat by tracking down and expunging every redundant sentence, marginal concept, or extraneous example. We’ve also tried to keep it fun. Collective life is an endless source of vivid examples as entertaining as they are instructive, and we’ve sprinkled them throughout the text.




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