Ceron-Anaya focused his study on three exclusive golf clubs in Mexico City and focused
his research to be conducted during the summers of 2010 and 2014. 58 semi-structured
interviews were conducted with corporate executives and businesspeople who use golf as part of
their professional interaction (Ceron-Anaya, 2015). Ceron-Anaya used participants from all
different social classes. He was able to interview upper middle and upper class (represented
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39.6% of sample), caddies (29.3% of sample), golf journalists who belong to the lower middle
class (6.9% of sample), golfer without a club who are part of the middle class (10.3% of sample),
golf consultants (10.3% of sample) and golf instructors (3.4% of sample). By having participants
of all different social classes, it will help validate Ceron-Anaya’s point (Ceron-Anaya, 2015).
Ceron-Anaya found that his own social class affected how members would answer and
elaborate during the interview. He stated that a member stopped elaborating his answers when
the member found out that Ceron-Anaya took public transportation to get to the golf course. I
believe Ceron-Anaya’s study directly correlates to what I am looking for in my proposed
research. Again, like Cock, having participants of different backgrounds and social classes
provides more information to the study. Also, by gathering participants from multiple golf
courses helps the study as well. Every course is individualized, so by getting a bigger sample
pool helps gather different perspectives.
In the article, Golf class teaches students the art of schmoozing, it shows that people use
golf to help network and benefit of getting set up for a job. The article explains that there is a lot
of busines taking place on the golf course between golfers. Proper gold etiquette should be
followed in order to impress a client and it states that you want to make the other person feel
This article has some serious limitations as it does not include any research conducted,
but it does show that people are thinking like a businessperson while on the golf course. It’s not
just for leisure, golf is used to conduct business. This adds to the social aspect of golf and how
the “higher ups” use golf.
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Malcolm and Tangen’s (2015), main goal of their research was to examine the cultural
diffusion and the etiquette code of golf. Through their research, they were able to gather
information on the role of emotions and psychological life (Malcom and Tangen, 2015).
Although they were only able to provide qualitative data, they were able to conclude that the
concepts self-control, embarrassment and impression management would be valuable to
understanding the phenomenon of golf etiquette (Malcolm and Tangen, 2015).
After interviewing 38 golfers of all levels, from scratch golfers, golfers with handicaps as
high as 33, and golfers who do not report their handicap, Malcolm and Tangen were able to
understand that golf etiquette plays a huge role. All golfers also reported that dress code plays a
major role in who is “accepted” on the course (Malcolm and Tangen, 2015). The four main
etiquette categories of golf include: safety, courtesy, pace of play, and care of the course, and
some would include dress code (Malcolm and Tangen, 2015). Through my experience of playing,
etiquette plays a role in every round that a golfer participates in. Providing the data that golfers,
of all levels, recognize the importance shows that they are serious about the game enough to
learn and understand. The article never stated anything regarding social class but does show that
the serious golfers follow the different categories of golf etiquette.
Although the research provides great information, there are limitations to Malcolm and
Tangen’s findings. As I have a prioritized field on golf in the United States, their research was
conducted with Norwegian and English golfers. Yes, golf is a universal sport and all serious
golfers do follow proper etiquette, this could be a much different case (Malcolm and Tangen,
Humphries (2011), takes a different approach to the golf industry in his article. Her goal
was to determine if there is a correlation between the level of golfer and the type of course they
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choose to play, while on vacation. This study also had a wide range of golfers, ranging in number
of years of experience, handicap and total number of vacations (Humphries, 2011). Like
Malcolm and Tanger, Humphries only gathered qualitative data. She believed that this would
allow greater opportunities for in-depth insight of the study. Her methods included using semi-
structured interviews through email to gather information.
Through Humphries methods, she used an email database to contact golfers. After
contacting 107 different golfers, Humphries ensured to use golfers, of different levels,
“infrequent golfers” (5 or less rounds per year), “moderate golfers” (6-25 rounds per year), and
“dedicated golfers” (25 or more rounds per year). Humphries conducted, in total, nine interviews
with each golfer, lasting anywhere between 30-90 minutes (Humphries, 2011). Making sure to
use semi-structured interviews, this allowed flexibility to respond to the comments and details
provided by the participants which ensures that all relevant issues come to light (Humphries,
Through Humphries research, she was able to determine that there are multiple factors
that play a role in which course a golfer will choose to play while on vacation. These include
access, perceived golf reputation, quality and reputation of course, word-of-mouth
recommendations, course design, and linking the golf capital with its reputation (Humphries,
2011). Lots of golfers are willing to spend money, especially on vacation, at the finest courses at
their destination. Yes, they will take recommendations of certain courses and decide which to
play based on the factors above. But then they will also make a decision based on how much
each course will cost. If the course is a once in a lifetime opportunity, they may be more willing
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to pay more. Golfers in a lower social class may not even play golf on vacation; or they will play
at a much less prestigious course.
Humphries concluded that golfers will play at certain course to add to their own golfing
capital. Golfers feel that their capital is enhanced by experiencing elite, highly reputed, golf
courses and destinations. This can be achieved through reporting their experiences within their
cultural network, recounting their playing of a signature hole, their overall score achieved or
their opinion of the course, the facilities and the welcome (Humphries, 2011). By increasing their
personal capital, golfers are able to place themselves higher in their local social class of fellow
golfers. They can feel they have experienced something other golfers have not.
Lastly in McGinnis’ research, the article goes into depth regarding women and their
position in a male-dominated world of golf. There is perceived sexism in the sport. This study
was taken back in 2000, before Annika Sorenstam, Michelle Wie, Martha Burk, and other
newsmakers in golf penetrated the national media (McGinnis, 2005). McGinnis spoke about who
the sport of golf promotes masculine hegemony with the “citizen golfer” framed as young, male,
and able-bodied (McGinnis, 2005).
McGinnis was able to gather information from ten female golfers that had played rounds
of golf at Midwestern golf courses. The main goal was depth of experience of each golfer while
playing multiple courses. From how they were treated at the start of their round, throughout, and
after their round. Female golfers are viewed much differently from men when it comes to golf.
The lady’s tees are much closer to the whole and men perceive female golfers to be slow
(McGinnis, 2005). This is an of statistical discrimination when it comes to women golfers.
Driving distance is often an easily identifiable and important marker of who deserves to be on
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the course. Much of the results were spent on the issue of driving distance and how the female
golfers feel about the issue.
The article dives deeply in a major social issue when it comes to the game of golf. Male
golfers definitely are viewed differently when compared to their counterpart. There are
limitations to the research. For starters, the qualitative data was tested and recorded in the year
2000. With the changing game of golf, these results could be extremely different in 2020. Also,
the courses being played were in the Midwest. Could the results be different in different parts of
the country? Could the results be different in different parts of the world? Based on the LPGA,
most golfers come from all over the world; there are not many “good” American women golfers
The proper design for gathering data and research is by surveying golfers from different
golf courses, that range in price (memberships and public play per round) and are in a similar
geological location. There are a lot of courses in the New England area, all ranging in price and
privateness. By surveying the golfers, this will provide qualitative data to help gather opinions of
the golfers. Conducting semi-structured interviews and surveys will allow flexibility to respond
to the comments and details provided by the participants which ensures that all relevant issues
come to light. Along with getting qualitative data, by gathering financial data of each participant
will help gather quantitative data. Some of this financial data includes income, numbers of
rounds per year, price of golf clubs, and price of equipment. This data will give a better sense of
how much each participant is willing to spend (money and time) on golf per year.
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