African American Golf Clubs in the Early Development of Black Golf
This article illustrates the role of African American golf clubs in the promotion and facilitation of golf among African Americans. These golf clubs were involved in sponsoring golf tournaments, networking with other golf clubs, and ensuring the development of golf in the African American community. At the time, golf clubs were formed during a period of racial segregation to create institutional structures that were similar to those of the whites and due to being excluded from white golf activities. The golf clubs aimed to not only reduce racial segregation but also to reduce social classes by encouraging broader participation and a platform of exposure for black golf successful athletes with the hopes of boosting their success in their golf careers. This study’s purpose relates to my research as it proves that golf was interwoven in social class and there existed barriers to participation in terms of race.
This article takes a deep dive into the history of golf development among African American golf clubs since the early 20th century America. It shows the earlier goals of golf clubs and how private golf courses were slowly established by African American golf clubs. Golf clubs became those of the elite and the common African American golf players who were great at the sport became golf instructors and professionals among the socially elite. The main limitation of the article is the lack of sufficient documentation of the African American golf activities to gain a better understanding of their success and eventual decline (DAWKINS, BRADDOCK & GILBERT, 2018).
This article will greatly contribute to my research proposal because I will be able to explore the development of golf through a historical lens. I will investigate how golf, once a whites-only sport diffused into the African American culture, and how social classes were formed within the sport over time.
Golf Class Teaches Students the Art of Schmoozing
This article explains a basic golf course that entails more than just swinging a club but also swinging a deal. This is better known as the art of schmoozing. This implies that playing golf is more than a physical exercise but a platform to conduct business. This article is proof that golf is mainly played by the upper class or people who have succeeded in their careers and businesses. It is a place of striking deals and building businesses which demonstrates the relationship between golf and social class.
This article explores a teacher-student interaction where the former teaches her students the golf course. Ms. Schendel teaches golf students and she emphasizes the need for acumen such as proper golf etiquette to impress clients. While playing golf, Ms. Schendel teaches her students to always play a character or not be their true selves to best serve their interests. A golf course is a platform where the main goal is to please others, act interested in what other people have to say, or remain silent depending on the golf activity. Regardless of one’s career path, taking a golf course may be the best approach to meeting and networking with clients. The article even stresses that on the field, you do not have to win, losing may be preferable especially if the client is not that good to boost their confidence and esteem (Golf Class Teaches Students the Art of Schmoozing. 2002, April 19).
The article does not follow a normal research process and thus there are no study limitations. Nevertheless, this article will strongly influence my research proposal because it explores the business side of golf. Unlike most sports, golf has a certain class to it, and conversations and interactions are quite unique. Golf requires more than having the technique to play in the field but the knowledge of how to interact with the elite to get a seat at the table.