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Investigative Intelligence- Chapter 7 Lecture Notes


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• POP has been pivotal in advancing the notion that not all crime solutions come from the police. There are a range of other decision‐makers in the criminal justice system, and beyond.


a. Front‐line officers


• The traditional target for tactical analysis and intelligence products.


• Unclear whether front‐line officers are decision‐makers in terms of the 3i model, because there is often a lack of accountability and they can be easily drawn away by emergency and other radio calls.


• Yet, analysts need to maintain a relationship with patrol officers because they are often a source of quality information.


• ‘Tactical intelligence’ can too often deteriorate into case support.


b. Police leadership


• Police leadership are often decision‐makers, but often uninformed as to the latest research on what works and what doesn’t in crime prevention and reduction.


• Much police leadership training assumes that officers know how to reduce crime, but the evidence suggests otherwise.


• This may explain why so many policing strategies are traditional, saturation patrol type affairs.


c. Non‐law enforcement


• Regulatory agencies have the added advantage of drawing on regulation and compliance‐based processes that go beyond simple prosecution.


• Part of the nodal governance idea, whereby police are supplemented by government and the private sector that can provide additional security services.


d. The general public


• The main target for dissemination with community policing


• Intelligence‐led policing and POP take a similar view: Communities are suitable decision‐makers where they can help, but are not essential decision‐makers for every problem.


• Little research evidence suggests that greater dissemination to the public has an impact on crime.


• Security networks


• Additional agencies that are now often incorporated into security networks include Customs and border control, Immigration authorities, Defense agencies, and national security bodies.


• 1998 Crime and Disorder Act (UK) made multiagency crime prevention initiatives a statutory requirement


• GMAC PBM is a good example.




• When client’s don’t understand the demands of good analysis, they tend to be unforgiving in respect of the time and effort required for good products. As a result, they create a pressure that can cause poor products.


• Other agencies – media, politicians and so on – have their own agenda and try to push decision‐makers to act in their interests.


• The key is the crime intelligence product is likely to be the only objective voice that decision‐maker’s hear.


a. Working with the audience


• Analysts have to liaise and communicate with clients during the development of products so that the final product can be targeted accurately.


• How clients define success is important, because products can be tailored to reflect this need of decision‐makers.


• If analysts produce a good product, they should expect that it will be photocopied, faxed, e‐mailed and referenced by/to clients that they are not aware of and potentially never expected.




• Analysts should aim to maximize the distribution of their products, rather than work on the need‐to‐know principle.


• Analytical units being close to decision‐makers runs counter to the thinking in many police departments, but having access to street data is meaningless if analysts cannot influence decision‐makers.

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