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Vocabulary acquisition and Use

4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.

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5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

6. Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression.

Note on range and content of student language use

To build a foundation for college and career readiness in language, students must gain control over many conventions of standard English grammar, usage, and mechanics as well as learn other ways to use language to convey meaning effectively. They must also be able to determine or clarify the meaning of grade-appropriate words encountered through listening, reading, and media use; come to appreciate that words have nonliteral meanings, shadings of meaning, and relationships to other words; and expand their vocabulary in the course of studying content. The inclusion of Language standards in their own strand should not be taken as an indication that skills related to conventions, effective language use, and vocabulary are unimportant to reading, writing, speaking, and listening; indeed, they are inseparable from such contexts.

 

 

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Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Language Standards K–5 The following standards for grades K–5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. Beginning in grade 3, skills and understandings that are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking are marked with an asterisk (*). See the table on page 30 for a complete list and Appendix A for an example of how these skills develop in sophistication.

Kindergartners: Grade 1 students: Grade 2 students: Conventions of Standard english

1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a. Print many upper- and lowercase letters. b. Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs. c. Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/

or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes). d. Understand and use question words

(interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how).

e. Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with).

f. Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.

1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a. Print all upper- and lowercase letters. b. Use common, proper, and possessive nouns. c. Use singular and plural nouns with matching

verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop).

d. Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their; anyone, everything).

e. Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home; Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home).

f. Use frequently occurring adjectives. g. Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e.g.,

and, but, or, so, because). h. Use determiners (e.g., articles,

demonstratives). i. Use frequently occurring prepositions (e.g.,

during, beyond, toward). j. Produce and expand complete simple

and compound declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts.

1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a. Use collective nouns (e.g., group). b. Form and use frequently occurring irregular

plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish).

c. Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves). d. Form and use the past tense of frequently

occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told). e. Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose

between them depending on what is to be modified.

f. Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy).

2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. a. Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the

pronoun I. b. Recognize and name end punctuation. c. Write a letter or letters for most consonant

and short-vowel sounds (phonemes). d. Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on

knowledge of sound-letter relationships.

2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. a. Capitalize dates and names of people. b. Use end punctuation for sentences. c. Use commas in dates and to separate single

words in a series. d. Use conventional spelling for words with

common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.

e. Spell untaught words phonetically, drawing on phonemic awareness and spelling conventions.

2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. a. Capitalize holidays, product names, and

geographic names. b. Use commas in greetings and closings of

letters. c. Use an apostrophe to form contractions and

frequently occurring possessives. d. Generalize learned spelling patterns when

writing words (e.g., cage → badge; boy → boil). e. Consult reference materials, including

beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

 

 

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Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Language Standards K–5 Kindergartners: Grade 1 students: Grade 2 students:

Knowledge of Language 3. (Begins in grade 2) 3. (Begins in grade 2) 3. Use knowledge of language and its conventions

when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. a. Compare formal and informal uses of English.

Vocabulary acquisition and Use 4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and

multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content. a. Identify new meanings for familiar words and

apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck).

b. Use the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes (e.g., -ed, -s, re-, un-, pre-, -ful, -less) as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word.

4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 1 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies. a. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the

meaning of a word or phrase. b. Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to

the meaning of a word. c. Identify frequently occurring root words (e.g.,

look) and their inflectional forms (e.g., looks, looked, looking).

4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies. a. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the

meaning of a word or phrase. b. Determine the meaning of the new word

formed when a known prefix is added to a known word (e.g., happy/unhappy, tell/retell).

c. Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition, additional).

d. Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly; bookshelf, notebook, bookmark).

e. Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases.

5. With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings. a. Sort common objects into categories (e.g.,

shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.

b. Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms).

c. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at school that are colorful).

d. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.g., walk, march, strut, prance) by acting out the meanings.

5. With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings. a. Sort words into categories (e.g., colors,

clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.

b. Define words by category and by one or more key attributes (e.g., a duck is a bird that swims; a tiger is a large cat with stripes).

c. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at home that are cozy).

d. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g., look, peek, glance, stare, glare, scowl) and adjectives differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings.

5. Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings. a. Identify real-life connections between words

and their use (e.g., describe foods that are spicy or juicy).

b. Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs (e.g., toss, throw, hurl) and closely related adjectives (e.g., thin, slender, skinny, scrawny).

6. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts.

6. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e.g., because).

6. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are happy that makes me happy).

 

 

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Common Core State StandardS for enGLISH LanGUaGe artS & LIteraCy In HIStory/SoCIaL StUdIeS, SCIenCe, and teCHnICaL SUbjeCtS

Language Standards K–5 Grade 3 students: Grade 4 students: Grade 5 students:

Conventions of Standard english 1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of

standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a. Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs,

adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences.

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