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awareness of internal and external stimuli

device used to treat sleep apnea; includes a mask that fits over the sleeper’s nose and mouth, which is connected to a pump that pumps air into the person’s airways, forcing them to remain open

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type of low frequency, high amplitude brain wave characteristic of stage 3 and stage 4 sleep

drug that tends to suppress central nervous system activity

feelings of intense elation and pleasure from drug use

discipline that studies how universal patterns of behavior and cognitive processes have evolved over time as a result of natural selection

one of a class of drugs that results in profound alterations in sensory and perceptual experiences, often with vivid hallucinations

tendency to maintain a balance, or optimal level, within a biological system

state of extreme self-focus and attention in which minimal attention is given to external stimuli

consistent difficulty in falling or staying asleep for at least three nights a week over a month’s time

collection of symptoms brought on by travel from one time zone to another that results from the mismatch between our internal circadian cycles and our environment

very high amplitude pattern of brain activity associated with stage 2 sleep that may occur in response to environmental stimuli

hidden meaning of a dream, per Sigmund Freud’s view of the function of dreams

people become aware that they are dreaming and can control the dream’s content

Chapter 4 | States of Consciousness 147

 

 

manifest content

meditation

melatonin

meta-analysis

methadone

methadone clinic

methamphetamine

narcolepsy

night terror

non-REM (NREM)

obstructive sleep apnea

opiate/opioid

parinsomnia

physical dependence

pineal gland

psychological dependence

rapid eye movement (REM) sleep

REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD)

restless leg syndrome

rotating shift work

sleep

storyline of events that occur during a dream, per Sigmund Freud’s view of the function of dreams

clearing the mind in order to achieve a state of relaxed awareness and focus

hormone secreted by the endocrine gland that serves as an important regulator of the sleep- wake cycle

study that combines the results of several related studies

synthetic opioid that is less euphorogenic than heroin and similar drugs; used to manage withdrawal symptoms in opiate users

uses methadone to treat withdrawal symptoms in opiate users

type of amphetamine that can be made from pseudoephedrine, an over-the-counter drug; widely manufactured and abused

sleep disorder in which the sufferer cannot resist falling to sleep at inopportune times

sleep disorder in which the sleeper experiences a sense of panic and may scream or attempt to escape from the immediate environment

period of sleep outside periods of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep

sleep disorder defined by episodes when breathing stops during sleep as a result of blockage of the airway

one of a category of drugs that has strong analgesic properties; opiates are produced from the resin of the opium poppy; includes heroin, morphine, methadone, and codeine

one of a group of sleep disorders characterized by unwanted, disruptive motor activity and/or experiences during sleep

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