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4.3 Stages of Sleep The different stages of sleep are characterized by the patterns of brain waves associated with each stage. As a person transitions from being awake to falling asleep, alpha waves are replaced by theta waves. Sleep spindles and K-complexes emerge in stage 2 sleep. Stage 3 and stage 4 are described as slow-wave sleep that is marked by a predominance of delta waves. REM sleep involves rapid movements of the eyes, paralysis of voluntary muscles, and dreaming. Both NREM and REM sleep appear to play important roles in learning and memory. Dreams may represent life events that are important to the dreamer. Alternatively, dreaming may represent a state of protoconsciousness, or a virtual reality, in the mind that helps a person during consciousness.

4.4 Sleep Problems and Disorders Many individuals suffer from some type of sleep disorder or disturbance at some point in their lives. Insomnia is a common experience in which people have difficulty falling or staying asleep. Parasomnias involve unwanted motor behavior or experiences throughout the sleep cycle and include RBD, sleepwalking, restless leg syndrome, and night terrors. Sleep apnea occurs when individuals stop breathing during their sleep, and in the case of sudden infant death syndrome, infants will stop breathing during sleep and die. Narcolepsy involves an irresistible urge to fall asleep during waking hours and is often associated with cataplexy and hallucination.

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4.5 Substance Use and Abuse Substance use disorder is defined in DSM-5 as a compulsive pattern of drug use despite negative consequences. Both physical and psychological dependence are important parts of this disorder. Alcohol, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines are central nervous system depressants that affect GABA neurotransmission. Cocaine, amphetamine, cathinones, and MDMA are all central nervous stimulants that agonize dopamine neurotransmission, while nicotine and caffeine affect acetylcholine and adenosine, respectively. Opiate drugs serve as powerful analgesics through their effects on the endogenous opioid neurotransmitter system, and hallucinogenic drugs cause pronounced changes in sensory and perceptual experiences. The hallucinogens are variable with regards to the specific neurotransmitter systems they affect.

4.6 Other States of Consciousness Hypnosis is a focus on the self that involves suggested changes of behavior and experience. Meditation involves relaxed, yet focused, awareness. Both hypnotic and meditative states may involve altered states of consciousness that have potential application for the treatment of a variety of physical and psychological disorders.

Review Questions

1. The body’s biological clock is located in the ________.

a. hippocampus b. thalamus c. hypothalamus d. pituitary gland

2. ________ occurs when there is a chronic deficiency in sleep.

a. jet lag b. rotating shift work c. circadian rhythm d. sleep debt

150 Chapter 4 | States of Consciousness

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3. ________ cycles occur roughly once every 24 hours.

a. biological b. circadian c. rotating d. conscious

4. ________ is one way in which people can help reset their biological clocks.

a. Light-dark exposure b. coffee consumption c. alcohol consumption d. napping

5. Growth hormone is secreted by the ________ while we sleep.

a. pineal gland b. thyroid c. pituitary gland d. pancreas

6. The ________ plays a role in controlling slow- wave sleep.

a. hypothalamus b. thalamus c. pons d. both a and b

7. ________ is a hormone secreted by the pineal gland that plays a role in regulating biological rhythms and immune function.

a. growth hormone b. melatonin c. LH d. FSH

8. ________ appears to be especially important for enhanced performance on recently learned tasks.

a. melatonin b. slow-wave sleep c. sleep deprivation d. growth hormone

9. ________ is(are) described as slow-wave sleep. a. stage 1 b. stage 2 c. stage 3 and stage 4 d. REM sleep

10. Sleep spindles and K-complexes are most often associated with ________ sleep.

a. stage 1 b. stage 2 c. stage 3 and stage 4 d. REM

11. Symptoms of ________ may be improved by REM deprivation.

a. schizophrenia b. Parkinson’s disease c. depression d. generalized anxiety disorder

12. The ________ content of a dream refers to the true meaning of the dream.

a. latent b. manifest c. collective unconscious d. important

13. ________ is loss of muscle tone or control that is often associated with narcolepsy.

a. RBD b. CPAP c. cataplexy d. insomnia

14. An individual may suffer from ________ if there is a disruption in the brain signals that are sent to the muscles that regulate breathing.

a. central sleep apnea b. obstructive sleep apnea c. narcolepsy d. SIDS

15. The most common treatment for ________ involves the use of amphetamine-like medications.

a. sleep apnea b. RBD c. SIDS d. narcolepsy

16. ________ is another word for sleepwalking. a. insomnia b. somnambulism c. cataplexy d. narcolepsy

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17. ________ occurs when a drug user requires more and more of a given drug in order to experience the same effects of the drug.

a. withdrawal b. psychological dependence c. tolerance d. reuptake

18. Cocaine blocks the reuptake of ________. a. GABA b. glutamate c. acetylcholine d. dopamine

19. ________ refers to drug craving. a. psychological dependence b. antagonism c. agonism d. physical dependence

20. LSD affects ________ neurotransmission. a. dopamine b. serotonin c. acetylcholine d. norepinephrine

21. ________ is most effective in individuals that are very open to the power of suggestion.

a. hypnosis b. meditation c. mindful awareness d. cognitive therapy

22. ________ has its roots in religious practice. a. hypnosis b. meditation c. cognitive therapy d. behavioral therapy

23. Meditation may be helpful in ________. a. pain management b. stress control c. treating the flu d. both a and b

24. Research suggests that cognitive processes, such as learning, may be affected by ________.

a. hypnosis b. meditation c. mindful awareness d. progressive relax

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