Headings and subheadings
show the paper’s
method is described, using the
terms and acronyms of
Passive voice is used to
experiment, not the
active voice is used.
Running on Empty 6
three experimental groups. Next, students were given an instruction
sheet. These written instructions, which we also read aloud, explained
the experimental conditions, clarified guidelines for the food deprivation
period, and specified the time and location of testing.
Participants were randomly assigned to one of these conditions
using a matched-triplets design based on the GPAs collected at the
initial meeting. This design was used to control individual differences
in cognitive ability. Two days after the initial meeting, participants were
informed of their group assignment and its condition and reminded that,
if they were in a food-deprived group, they should not eat anything after
10 a.m. the next day. Participants from the control group were tested at
7:30 p.m. in a designated computer lab on the day the deprivation started.
Those in the 12-hour group were tested at 10 p.m. on that same day.
Those in the 24-hour group were tested at 10:40 a.m. on the following day.
At their assigned time, participants arrived at a computer lab
for testing. Each participant was given written testing instructions,
which were also read aloud. The online concentration test had already
been loaded on the computers for participants before they arrived for
testing, so shortly after they arrived they proceeded to complete the
test. Immediately after all participants had completed the test and their
scores were recorded, participants were each given the silhouette puzzle
and instructed how to proceed. In addition, they were told that (1) they
would have an unlimited amount of time to complete the task, and (2)
they were not to tell any other participant whether they had completed
the puzzle or simply given up. This procedure was followed to prevent
the group influence of some participants seeing others give up. Any
participant still working on the puzzle after 40 minutes was stopped to
keep the time of the study manageable. Immediately after each participant
stopped working on the puzzle, he/she gave demographic information
and completed a few manipulation-check items. We then debriefed and
dismissed each participant outside of the lab.
Attention is shown to
the control features.
The experiment is laid out step
by step, with time
transitions like “then” and “next.”
Running on Empty 7