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Headings and subheadings

show the paper’s

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The experiment’s

method is described, using the

terms and acronyms of

the discipline.

Passive voice is used to

emphasize the

experiment, not the

researchers; otherwise,

active voice is used.



Running on Empty 6

three experimental groups. Next, students were given an instruction

sheet. These written instructions, which we also read aloud, explained

the experimental conditions, clarified guidelines for the food deprivation

period, and specified the time and location of testing.

Participants were randomly assigned to one of these conditions

using a matched-triplets design based on the GPAs collected at the

initial meeting. This design was used to control individual differences

in cognitive ability. Two days after the initial meeting, participants were

informed of their group assignment and its condition and reminded that,

if they were in a food-deprived group, they should not eat anything after

10 a.m. the next day. Participants from the control group were tested at

7:30 p.m. in a designated computer lab on the day the deprivation started.

Those in the 12-hour group were tested at 10 p.m. on that same day.

Those in the 24-hour group were tested at 10:40 a.m. on the following day.

At their assigned time, participants arrived at a computer lab

for testing. Each participant was given written testing instructions,

which were also read aloud. The online concentration test had already

been loaded on the computers for participants before they arrived for

testing, so shortly after they arrived they proceeded to complete the

test. Immediately after all participants had completed the test and their

scores were recorded, participants were each given the silhouette puzzle

and instructed how to proceed. In addition, they were told that (1) they

would have an unlimited amount of time to complete the task, and (2)

they were not to tell any other participant whether they had completed

the puzzle or simply given up. This procedure was followed to prevent

the group influence of some participants seeing others give up. Any

participant still working on the puzzle after 40 minutes was stopped to

keep the time of the study manageable. Immediately after each participant

stopped working on the puzzle, he/she gave demographic information

and completed a few manipulation-check items. We then debriefed and

dismissed each participant outside of the lab.

Attention is shown to

the control features.

The experiment is laid out step

by step, with time

transitions like “then” and “next.”



Running on Empty 7


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