Volcanoes (Geology 115) – Exam #1 Review
Lecture 1: Introduction to Volcanoes
Exam #1 will cover all materials from weeks 1 – 6. Exam topics will be from lectures 1 – 5. Exam questions will include multiple choice, true/false, matching, and short answer. Below is a list of questions that outline topics that I may test you on. These questions are intended to help you study, but are not intended to be fully encompassing. However, if you can answer these questions, you should be well prepared. Please note that exam questions will be based on lecture material, homework, and in-class assignments.
1. What is a volcano? Are all volcanoes mountains?
2. What is volcanism? Is volcanism exclusive to erupting volcanoes?
3. What is volcanology? What are the two broad categories and what do those categories study?
4. Be able to define/ label parts of a volcano (anatomy of a volcano). Make sure to include magma and lava in those definitions.
5. What is the scientific method? What is a theory?
6. How was proto-Earth different from Earth today?
a. How did we get to our planet today?
7. What is density? What is mass? What is volume?
a. What does it mean to be dense?
b. What does it mean to be less dense?
8. What is density stratification? How does the density of Earth change from surface to interior?
9. What factors (as discussed in class) affect density? In both cases, what do each affect to change the density?
a. How does temperature and pressure change with depth?
10. How are Earth’s layers divided?
11. What are the compositional layers?
a. What are the two types of crust? Describe their composition, thickness and density. Be specific about thickness (you will need to know the average thickness) and be general about their density (which is lighter [or heavier] than the other)?
b. What is the composition of the mantle? What is important about the mantle? How do we know the mantle is completely solid? What is the core-mantle boundary? Why is this boundary important?
c. What is the composition of the core?
12. What is energy? What is the conservation of energy? What is the important energy source for volcanoes (in other words, what is the Earth system mainly driven by)?
13. What are the three ways heat is transferred inside Earth? Be able to define.
a. Why is radiation not important inside Earth?
b. Where is conduction efficient inside Earth? Why is the mantle a poor conductor?
c. Describe mantle convection. What causes it?