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Bowers, W. J., & Pierce, G. L. (1980). Arbitrariness and discrimination under post-Furman capital statutes. Crime and Delinquency , 26 , 563–632.

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Death Penalty Information Center. (2016c). Massachusetts . Retrieved from www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/massachusetts-0 Death Penalty Information Center. (2016d). Rhode Island . Retrieved from www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/rhode-island-0 Death Penalty Information Center. (2016e). Searchable execution database . Retrieved from www.deathpenaltyinfo.

org/views-executions Death Penalty Information Center. (2016f ). Innocence database . Retrieved from www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/innocence Death Penalty Information Center. (2016g). Governor Bill Richardson signs repeal of the death penalty . Retrieved from

www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/governor-bill-richardson-signs-repeal-death-penalty Death Penalty Information Center. (2016h). Illinois . Retrieved from www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/illinois-1 Death Penalty Information Center. (2016i). Connecticut . Retrieved from www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/connecticut-1 Death Penalty Information Center. (2016j). Aggravating factors for capital punishment by state . Retrieved from www.

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from http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/illinois-16th-state-abolish-death-penalty/story?id=13095912 Dixon, K. (2012, April 12). State House votes to repeal death penalty. The Connecticut Post. Retrieved from www.

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sentenced to death. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , 111 (20), 7230–7235. Hammel, P. (2016, November 9). Nebraskans vote overwhelmingly to restore death penalty, nullify historic 2015 vote

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29 The Topography of Capital Punishment


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Cases and Statutes Cited

Furman v. Georgia , 408 U.S. 238 (1972). Gregg v. Georgia , 428 U.S. 153 (1976). Jurek v. Texas , 428 U.S. 262(1976). Lockett v. Ohio , 438 U.S. 586 (1978). Penry v. Lynaugh , 492 U.S. 302 (1989). Proffi tt v. Florida , 428 U.S. 242 (1976). Ring v. Arizona , 536 U.S. 584, (2002). Roberts v. Louisiana , 428 U.S. 325 (1976). Roper v. Simmons , 543 U.S. 551 (2005). Texas Code of Code of Criminal Procedure § 37.071, Section 3. Woodson v. North Carolina , 428 U.S. 153 (1976). Zant v. Stephens , 462 U.S. 862 (1983).




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