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Professional Specialist Designs, develops, delivers, and evaluates learning and performance solutions.

Source: Based on M. Allen and J. Naughton, “Social Learning: A Call to Action for Learning Professionals,” T+D (August 2011): 50–55.

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FIGURE 1.5 The ATD Competency Model

Source: From J. Arneson, W. Rothwell, and J. Naughton, “Training and Development Competencies, Redefined to Create Competitive Advantage,” T+D (January 2013): 42–47.

Industry Knowledge

Technology Literacy

Global Mindset

Personal Skills

Business Skills

Interpersonal Skills

Foundational Competencies

T&D Areas of Expertise

Knowledge Management

Integrated Talent Management

Change Management

Performance Improvement

Instructional Design

Training Delivery

Learning Technologies

Evaluating Learning Impact

Competencies for the Training & Development


Managing Learning Programs


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46 Part 1 The Context for Training and Development

technologies, training delivery). Although training professionals spend most of their time designing learning (instructional design), delivering training, managing learning pro- grams, identifying, selecting, and using learning technologies, and coaching (working one- on-one with employees to help them develop), they do spend time in other areas as well. The model recognizes that performance improvement (designing and developing solutions to close performance gaps), talent management (including talent acquisition, develop- ment, and retention), and knowledge management are other important areas of expertise.

The foundational competencies anchor the competency model. The foundational com- petencies include interpersonal skills, business skills, personal skills, global mindset, in- dustry knowledge, and technology literacy. The foundational competencies are important regardless of a trainer’s area of expertise or role but are used to a different extent in each role or specialization.

Traditional narrow jobs in the training department focusing on one type of expertise (e.g., instructional designer and technical writer) are changing; having multiple areas of expertise becomes more necessary for training and development to contribute to the busi- ness. Project management requires the knowledge of new training technologies (e.g., web- delivered learning, mobile learning, and knowledge management systems) and the ability to manage managers, engineers, scientists, and others who may have more experience, knowledge, or technical savvy than the trainer.

To provide you with an idea of the variety of responsibilities and expertise required for training professional jobs, Table 1.11 provides an example of an instructional system designer job that was posted on the ATD website.

Table 1.12 shows median salaries for training professionals. Keep in mind that very rarely does anyone hold the highest-paying jobs (training manager, executive-level man- ager) without having developed competencies in a number of training roles.

Who Provides Training? In most companies, training and development activities are provided by trainers, manag- ers, in-house consultants, and employee experts. However, as the snapshot of training practices suggests, training and development activities are also outsourced. Outsourcing means that training and development activities are provided by individuals outside the company. Training providers outside the company include colleges and universities, community and junior colleges, technical and vocational institutions, product suppliers, consultants and consulting firms, unions, trade and professional organizations, and gov- ernment organizations. Outsourcing is discussed in greater detail in Chapter Two.

Who Is in Charge of Training? Training and development can be the responsibility of professionals in human resources, human resource development, or organizational development.123 Companies may also have entire functions or departments called human resources, human resource develop- ment, talent management or development, or organizational development that provide training and development.

In small companies, training is the responsibility of the founder and all the employees. When organizations grow to 100 employees, typically someone within the company is in charge of human resources, either as part of that person’s job or as his or her sole responsi- bility. At this point, training becomes one of the responsibilities of the employee in charge

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Employee Training and Development 47

Instructional Systems Designer/Developer/Trainer Role Overview: The job incumbent serves as a consultant and provides hands-on exper- tise in the areas of adult education methodologies, leadership development, leadership/ management training, course design, e-learning, and organizational development. The incumbent of this position is responsible for the performance of duties involved in carrying out the functional responsibilities.

Responsibilities • Design, develop, and deliver instructor-led, e-learning, or blended training programs,

courses, seminars, workshops, and presentations on leadership and management. • Provide training expertise related to topics such as leadership development, manage-

ment skills, supervisory training, performance and productivity, conflict management, team building, project teams, business communications, career planning, diversity and inclusion, and interpersonal effectiveness.

• Conduct stand-up training, facilitate learning activities, employ adult learning prin- ciples, deliver sessions, provide resources, and advise students.

• Research, design, and evaluate programs, courses, and activities, including selection of media products and animation.

• Design new courses and update existing course designs and training programs. • Contribute actively to a standard of excellence in carrying out our mission of promoting

learning and self-development. • Serve as facilitator and consultant. • Lead talent to the highest level of performance and productivity through the creation

and use of innovative best practice training and professional development systems, policies, processes, and procedures.

Desired Qualifications • Master’s degree in Instructional Technology, Education, Organization Development,

Human Resource Development, Adult Learning, or other related areas. • Knowledge of and experience in applying Adult Learning Principles. • Certification and experience in applying one or more assessments (e.g., 5 Dynamics, Myers

Briggs, DiSC, StrengthsFinder, Thomas-Kilmann) are highly desired. • Membership and/or certification in professional organizations are highly desired (e.g.,


Skills • Proficient using Adobe tools—eLearning Suite and Master Collection, Camtasia, Adobe

Catalyst, Captivate, Photoshop, Illustrator, Macromedia Flash, Premier Pro, and Open Source tools.

• Develop e-learning programs that are SCORM/AICC/Section 508 compliant. • Experience developing Microsoft SharePoint sites and administration. • Proficient working with most LMSs and LCMSs. • Advanced working knowledge using Microsoft Word and PowerPoint, Publisher, Excel,

and Outlook.

Experience • Five plus years of related experience. Diverse work experiences including small and

large employer work environments are essential. • Experience in designing courses, modules, and workshops that incorporate adult edu-

cation principles and experiential learning techniques; delivering training on supervision and performance management; delivering multiday training programs on leadership

TABLE 1.11 Example of Jobs Posted on the ATD Website

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48 Part 1 The Context for Training and Development

of human resources. In mid-sized to large organizations, training can be the responsibility of human resource professionals, or it can come from a separate function known as hu- man resource development, talent management, development, learning, or organizational development.

Human resource development refers to the integrated use of training and develop- ment, organizational development, and career development to improve individual, group, and organizational effectiveness. Human resource development professionals might be involved in job and task analysis, instructional systems design, on-the-job training, and individual performance improvement. Organizational development professionals might focus on training as well as team building, conflict avoidance, employee development, and change management. Talent management professionals might focus on identifying the top talent in the company and ensuring that they get the training and development needed to promote them or prepare them for new positions. Learning professionals might focus on formal training and development activities as well as ensuring that informal learning and knowledge sharing occurs through use of social networking tools. As you can see from these descriptions, training and development activities can be the responsi- bility of human resource management, human resource development, and organizational development professionals or departments. Keep in mind that regardless of what indi- vidual, department, or function is responsible, for training and development to succeed, employees, managers, training professionals, and top managers all have to take ownership

and management topics; writing course designs, course materials, student resource materials, educational aids, and similar educational materials; facilitating discussions, meetings, and training group activities; actively collaborating and contributing to effec- tive teamwork as part of a training team.

Desired Personal Characteristics • Must be able to function in a multitask environment, as part of a team and individually. • Must have integrity and high level of interpersonal skills to handle sensitive and

confidential issues involving all internal and external customers. • Work requires continual attention to detail in creating and proofing materials, establish-

ing priorities and meeting deadlines.

Source: From ATD Job Bank http://jobs.td.org/jobs/, accessed March 3, 2015.

TABLE 1.12 Average Salaries for Training Professionals

Executive-Level Training/Human Resource Development Manager $112,245 Executive-Level Manager 129,053 Training Department Manager (1–5 trainers report to you) 88,658 Training Department Manager (more than 5 trainers report to you) 91,287 One-Person Training Department 68,858 Classroom Instructor/Trainer 68,482 Instructional Designer 71,901 CBT/Web/Multimedia Programmer Designer/Manager 75,432 Management/Career/Organization Development Specialist 81,137 Human Resource Manager/Specialist 75,048

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