. When mothers reduced their use of coercive discipline, their sons
were less likely to comply to mothers requests.
showed greater behavioral problems in school.
showed fewer behavior problems and deviant peer associations.
showed little change in aggressive behavior.
1. Effective parenting of adolescents strikes a balance between ________ and ________.
low self-esteem; high self-esteem
independence; effortful control
1. Immigrant parents from cultures that place a high value on family closeness and obedience to authority may have greater difficulty in adapting to their teenagers push for autonomy. This results in ________, which is associated with a rise in deviant behavior.
a culture clash
an adjustment gap
1. Teenagers from affluent families
have closer relationships with their parents than children from low-SES families.
are less likely than low-SES teenagers to use alcohol or drugs.
rarely experience academic or behavioral problems.
are more likely than low-SES teenagers to use alcohol and drugs.
1. Like most African-American parents, Tabitha uses strict, no-nonsense discipline
combined infrequently with physical punishment.
as part of her authoritarian or uninvolved child rearing.
that frequently involves physical punishment.
but is overly permissive on day-to-day matters like curfew and chores.
1. Compared with nuclear family households, African-American extended-family arrangements place
more emphasis on cooperation and moral and religious values.
less emphasis on cooperation and moral and religious values.
more responsibility on children for their own self-care.
more responsibility on fathers than mothers for child rearing.
1. Research on family size and IQ has shown that
the family size IQ correlation is strongest when mothers are economically advantaged.
the larger the family, the lower the IQ score of all siblings.
there is no link between mother s IQ and family size.
children s IQs decline with later birth order.
1. Gretchen is an only child. In which of the following ways is she typically different from children with siblings?
She has less interaction with her parents.
She achieves less well in school.
She is selfish and spoiled.
She does better in school.
1. Children of homosexual parents
almost always grow up to be homosexual.
tend to be poorly adjusted.
are usually heterosexual.
often experience gender confusion, which leads to low self-esteem.
1. Which of the following is one way Laura and Tony can help their children adjust to their divorce?
Avoid discussions about the divorce because the children cannot understand adult motivations for separation.
Allow the children to observe Laura and Tony s conflict, which will help them understand why a separation is necessary.
Engage in authoritarian child rearing.
Explain the divorce and tell children what to expect.
1. Employed mothers who value their parenting role tend to
hire nannies or babysitters to help with child care.
work from home.
use authoritative child rearing and coregulation.
use permissive child rearing.
1. Research on child care indicates that
like center-based care, family child care is monitored for quality.
for low-SES children, the benefits of child care persist into the early school years.
for low-SES children, child care often has a negative impact on their cognitive and social development.
most American parents have access to high-quality child care.
1. As children become old enough to look after themselves, especially after school, the least successful are those who
often bend to peer pressures.
are monitored by parental telephone calls.
have a history of authoritative child rearing.
1. Of the reported cases of child maltreatment in the United States, which form occurs most often?
1. In which of the following scenarios would child maltreatment be most likely to occur?
Todd evaluates his son s behavior negatively, as worse than it really is.
Brenda is a single mom who gets a great deal of support from her aunt who lives nearby.
Maria is a quiet but friendly child.
Willis has been attending Parents Anonymous and has learned to use a number of constructive parenting techniques.
1. Among children, sexual abuse is most often committed against
boys in middle childhood.
boys in early childhood.
girls in middle childhood.
girls in adolescence.