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This exam covers all 14 TCO’s.

 

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For each of the following multiple choice questions, please select the Philosophy (and/or Philosopher) which best goes with each description below.

 

Question 1. 1.(TCOs 2, 4, 5, 6) The idea that the assisted suicide of terminally ill patients should be allowed simply at the patient’s direction reflects what type of ethics?(Points : 5)

Hobbes’ State of Nature
Rand’s Objectivism
Aristotle’s concept of Virtue
Thomas Aquinas’ concept of conscience
Socrates’ concept of excellence

 

Question 2. 2.(TCOs 1, 2, 7) What is the moral ideal of justice? (Points : 5)

Acts of mercy beyond what is required
Making decisions in order to build friendships
Meeting legal requirements
Evaluation of situations according to their merits
Meeting the terms of the Social Contract

 

Question 3. 3.(TCOs 1, 2) One of the common errors in Ethics is unwarranted assumptions. Unwarranted assumptions consist of what? (Points : 5)

Preconceptions before ethical dilemmas are confronted
Failing to read carefully and with attention to detail
Taking too much for granted
Speculating apart from information
Treating case studies carelessly

 

Question 4. 4.(TCO 2) Prescriptive language is commonly used in ethics for what reason? (Points : 5)

To indicate what is prohibited or impossible
To indicate that one choice is better than others
To show what actions are legal
To convey requirements and obligations
To indicate that there are really no choices available

 

Question 5. 5.(TCOs 7, 8) Each person ought to do whatever will best promote his or her own interests.(Points : 5)

Utilitarianism
Kant’s Categorical Imperative
Social Contract Theory
Ethical Egoism
Gilligan

 

Question 6. 6.(TCOs 2, 4, 9) Free people are motivated toward forming social structures according to a social contract in order to overcome what problem identified by Thomas Hobbes? (Points : 5)

The need to overcome disagreements
A perpetual state of warfare
The establishment of a monarchy
Taxation to support the costs of government
Organized ways to select leaders

 

Question 7. 7.(TCOs 3, 6) The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created through a congressional enabling act as a governmental agency to act on the concerns voiced by environmental ethicists. Their actions include which of the following? (Points : 5)

Subpoena regulation offenders
Monitor situations of environmental concern
Fine offenders
Sponsor new legislation on environmental issues
All of the above.

 

Question 8. 8.(TCOs 3, 6, 7) The notion that the only thing good without qualification is a good will is attributed to whom? (Points : 5)

St. Thomas Aquinas
Socrates
John Locke
Immanuel Kant
Oliver Cromwell

 

Question 9. 9.(TCOs 8, 9) John Stuart Mill’s theory of Utilitarianism is the most common form of ethics in use today. It is used so commonly because it belongs to which of the Primary Schools of Ethics? (Points : 5)

Care-based
Ends-based
Economy-based
Law-based
Efficiency-based

 

Question 10. 10.(TCOs 3, 6, 7) What is the purpose of proving whether a syllogism of formal logic is “valid”? (Points : 5)

To identify the connecting phrase “therefore” or a synonym of it before proceeding further
To determine whether the situation described is accurate
To determine whether the premises are true before continuing
To determine whether the conclusion proceeds from the premises
To determine that there are only two premise statements in the syllogism

 

Question 11. 11.(TCOs 1, 2) Different from normal problem solving, dilemmas are different in what aspect? (Points : 5)

Problems are much more complicated
When one choice is chosen, the opportunity for the others is lost
Problems are much more urgent
Problems are so much more real and less theoretical
Problems usually involve not honoring our own virtues

 

Question 12. 12.(TCOs 1, 2, 7) According to Thomas Aquinas, what ethical capacity do people of every culture naturally possess? (Points : 5)

Logical thinking
Personal virtues
Self-interest
Ability to learn lessons
Conscience

 

Question 13. 13.(TCOs 2, 8) The single criterion for making decisions in objectivist ethics is what? (Points : 5)

Professional development
Personal self-interest
The physical environment
Financial gain
The close group of family and friends who will be impacted

 

Question 14. 14.(TCOs 1, 2, 5) The world view of ruthless and unending competition for property and wealth was spelled out in which of these concepts? (Points : 5)

Locke’s notion of the natural state of man
Rawls’ notion of the veil of ignorance
Aristotle’s notion of the doctrine of the mean
Hammurabi’s code of law
Hobbes’ state of nature

 

Question 15. 15.(TCOs 3, 6, 7) Kant’s concern that people choose to observe universal laws as their duty is expressed through what actions? (Points : 5)

Their habits
Their maxims
Their desires
Their loves
Their loyalties

 

Question 16. 16.(TCOs 2, 7, 8) Personal development and discovery through the repetition of good acts and study of virtue characterizes what ethicist? (Points : 5)

Plato
Aristotle
Luther
Augustine
Socrates

 

Question 17. 17.(TCOs 2, 8) Professional codes of conduct serve what function for business and industry? (Points : 5)

Allow businesses to avoid training professional staffers
Enable transfer of valued employees across state lines
Enable contracting of temporary employees
Specify continuing education needs and requirements
Providing assurance of the professional qualifications of members

 

Question 18. 18.(TCOs 2, 7) Aristotle’s Ethical Doctrine of the Mean measured personal virtues on a scale that included the virtue itself, the excess of it, and the deficiency of it.

If the virtue is GENEROSITY, and the excess is WASTEFULNESS, what is the deficiency?

(Points : 5)

Carefulness
There is no deficiency
Being broke (having no money)
Stinginess
Moderation

 

Question 19. 19.(TCOs 8, 9) In personal or organizational conflict, what benefits accrue to all parties when a leader or consultant employees one of the ethical conflict resolution models of Week 6? (Points : 5)

Objectives of what winning the conflict means get refined and better understood
Conflict management gets slowed down and settled.
Conflict can be handled in a sequential, step-by-step manner
Parties can be reconciled without solving the issues
Personal relationships can be separated from issues

 

Question 20. 20.(TCOs 1, 2) The Latin term a priori describes the origin of knowledge developed rationally, and the term a posteriori describes knowledge developed through observation and experience. What is an example of ethics is best described as discovered in an a priori manner? (Points : 5)

Utilitarian ethics
Objectivist ethics
Deontological ethics
Political ethics
Scientific ethics

 

1. (TCOs 1, 2, 3, 7) In support of TCO #7 and in the Week 7 discussions, you developed and placed into the threaded discussions your personalized ethics statement of what has become important to you in the practice of ethics as you have practiced ethics during the course. Your first task in this question is to briefly present that personalized statement in just a few sentences before continuing with the question. Much of the rest of the exam will involve your working with that personalized statement through brief applications and cases.

Use your ethical philosophy to solve the following ethical situation. Explain how your philosophy helped you make your decision.

 

Should citizens have an ethical obligation to serve their country when it is at war? Under what circumstances, if any, is it ethical for a person to refuse to serve?

 

A significant number of people believe war is always wrong, and that no circumstances justify one nation’s taking up arms against another. Is this view ethically sound? How about realistically? Please state which side you agree with, and why. Explain and defend your position using your ethical position statement.

 

In answering, be sure to look at both sides of war: that is, a country defending itself against aggression and of a strong country coming to the aid of a weaker country that has been attacked unjustly. Then, explain how your ethical philosophy affected how you answered this problem.

 

 

 

(Points : 30) Spellchecker

 

 

Question 2. 2. (TCOs 1, 2, 7) Analyze the following ethical situation using YOUR ethical philosophy. Read the situation and then in your answer, explain why this is an ethical situation, what the “issues” are, and how an “ethical” person would resolve them. Explain how YOUR ethical philosophy has helped you reach a conclusion about how to resolve or analyze this situation.

As a result of the economic down-turn starting in 2008, efficiency has become more and more the byword of the successful business person. The axioms of the efficiency expert are: “Eliminate what need not be done; simplify what must be done; combine tasks wherever possible.”

 

Putting this into practice means, among other things, eliminating people’s jobs. Sometimes it also means making one person do two or three people’s jobs. As company’s gain the upper hand in employment (when the number of employees wanting good jobs is higher than the number of good (i.e. high paying) jobs available), they will more and more expect employees to be willing to work longer hours and to do accomplish more and varied tasks.

 

1. Under what circumstances is it ethical business practices to ask employees to multi-task or do more than one person’s job?

 

2. Under what circumstances is it ethical for an employee to refuse to do more work than can be taken on in a conventional 40-45 hours per week?

 

3. Let’s assume that it is BECAUSE employees are willing to multi-task and do two or three people’s jobs, that others LOSE their jobs. Who is more at fault ethically? The employer who requests the extra work from the remaining employees? Or the employees who are willing to do the extra work, thereby putting the others who aren’t willing out of work?

 

 

 

(Points : 30)

Spellchecker

 

 

Question 3. 3. (TCOs 1, 7, 9) How do you feel Immanuel Kant would have solved the above ethical situation differently or the same as you did using your philosophy? Please explain the reasons for the similarities or differences. (Points : 40)

Spellchecker

 

 

Question 4. 4. (TCOs 1, 2, 4, 9) Regina is chairperson of her city’s United Fund campaign. In her annual preparations meeting with her staff of canvassers, she gives this advice: “Hit the business places first. Don’t approach anyone who is walking alone in a hall or working alone in a closed office. Look for two or more people standing together or working side by side. Try to make them compete with each other in generous giving. Capitalize on their desire to show off and outdo the next person.” She then states that the canvasser who raises the most money of all will be awarded with a 5% cut of the total amount that canvasser raises. Her approach pays off and the United Fund raises the most money ever.

Tell what ethical philosophy Regina is using, if any.

 

Now, use your ethical philosophy to analyze the situation. Explain how, using your philosophy, you would have solved this situation either the same way as the character in the situation did, or differently. Why?

 

(Points : 30)

Spellchecker

 

 

Question 5. 5. (TCOs 5, 6) You are a new employee in an advertising company. Your client is a well known soup manufacturer who wants to feature in advertisements a picture showing the solid ingredients in its soup. Unfortunately, your advertising group found that the solid ingredients sank to the bottom of the bowl and were barely visible. All that could be seen was the broth. Your boss hits upon a solution–put marbles in the bottom of the bowl before pouring in the soup! You try it and the vegetables sit nicely on the top, giving the appearance of thick soup. Your boss wants you to run with the project with this solution.

What will you do? Explain why you will do this and what ethical analysis you used to come to this conclusion.

 

(Points : 30)

Spellchecker

 

 

Question 6. 6. (TCOs 6, 8) Analyze your answer above using the Front Page of the Newspaper ethical dilemma resolution model. Show your steps. (Points : 40)

Spellchecker

 

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