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. In ecological systems theory, the __________ consists of cultural values, laws, customs, and resources. Correct Answer


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. In ecological systems theory, the __________ consists of cultural values, laws, customs, and resources. Correct Answer macrosystem
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12 . In Freud’s psychosexual theory, Correct Answer

the superego works to reconcile id impulses and ego demands.

children develop a sexual desire for the other-sex parent during the genital stage.

id impulses transfer to the genitals during the latency stage.

extreme orderliness and cleanliness in adulthood is often the result of conflicts about anal control during toddlerhood.




13 . Information processing and Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory differ MOST on which of the following issues? Correct Answer

one course of development versus many courses

stability versus change

nature versus nurture

continuous development versus discontinuous development




14 . Seventeenth-century philosopher John Locke Correct Answer

regarded children as miniature already-formed adults.

believed that children were naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong.

recommended restrictive parenting practices as the most efficient means for taming children.

viewed children as a tabula rasa or “blank slate.”




15 . One problem with government-funded child and family programs in the United States is that Correct Answer

there are no special interest groups who act as advocates for children’s causes.

no federal dollars have been allocated to child care.

most are aimed at handling problems after they have occurred rather than preventing problems before they occur.

no new policy initiatives have been developed to improve that status of children.




16 . The field of child development Correct Answer

focuses on all aspects of development from birth until adolescence.

focuses mainly on research topics that are only of scientific interest.

is interdisciplinary.

deals mainly with child-rearing practices.




17 . The most rapid period of development is Correct Answer


middle childhood.

infancy and toddlerhood.

the prenatal period.




18 . The normative approach to child study was developed by Correct Answer


Hall and Gesell.


Binet and Simon.




19 . The poor rankings of American children on many childhood social indicators is particularly disturbing because Correct Answer

the United States is a collectivist society.

child development researchers in the United States lack involvement in policy development.

the United States is among the wealthiest nations and has the broadest knowledge base for intervening effectively in children’s lives.

the United States provides all families with universal health care and free or inexpensive child care.




20 . Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky Correct Answer

emphasized the role of bidirectional influences in development.

viewed cognitive development as a socially mediated process.

emphasized discontinuous change.

focused on development throughout the lifespan.

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