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1 . __________ identifies eight intelligences on the basis of distinct sets of processing operations applied in culturally valued activities. [Hint] Carroll’s three-stratum theory of intelligence Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence Thurstone’s theory of primary mental abilities

2 . According to componential research, which of the following is the BEST predictor of gains in mental test performance over time? [Hint] metacognitive skills organizational skills planning skills effective strategy use

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3 . Adoption research has shown that [Hint] adopted children show a decreasing resemblance in IQ to their biological mothers as they grow older. when children of mothers low in IQ, education, and income are adopted by 6 months of age, they score above average in IQ. children of low-IQ biological mothers do as well as children of high-IQ biological mothers when placed in similar adoptive families. correlations between the IQ scores of adoptive relatives are higher than those of biological relatives.

4 . An intelligence quotient (IQ) [Hint] indicates the extent to which the raw score deviates from the typical performance of same-age individuals. represents the number of test items passed as a function of individuals of the same mental age in the standardization sample. is expressed as the ratio of an individual’s chronological age to her mental age. reflects the number of items passed divided by the number of items passed by an average child of the same age.

5 . Binet and Simon’s original intelligence test [Hint] was designed to measure eight independent intelligences. was developed to determine the underlying mental abilities associated with intelligence tests. used simple measures of sensory responsiveness and reaction time. was the first developmental approach to test construction.

6 . Compared to middle-SES white children, low-SES black children [Hint] are less likely to be asked “real” questions by their parents. emphasize emotional and social topics rather than facts in their narratives. are less concerned with pleasing teachers. score similarly on IQ tests when they are made up of only spatial and performance tasks.

7 . Group-administered intelligence tests [Hint] are given mainly to diagnose children with learning problems. are useful for instructional planning. require extensive training and experience to give well. are used most often to identify highly intelligent children.

8 . In Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence, the experiential subtheory [Hint] proposes that intelligent people skillfully adapt their information-processing skills to fit with their personal desires and the demands of their everyday worlds. defines intelligence in terms of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to solve problems, create products, and discover new knowledge in a wide range of culturally valued activities. states that highly intelligent individuals, compared with less intelligent ones, process information more skillfully in novel situations. spells out the information-processing skills that underlie intelligent behavior.

9 . Longitudinal research shows that children who gain in IQ with age tend to [Hint] be competitive about doing well in school. be low-SES minority children. have parents who used very severe discipline. be susceptible to peer pressure.

10 . Research on early intervention and intellectual development indicates that [Hint] two-generation interventions are less effective than traditional Head Start programs. Head Start is not associated with a reduction in non-academic problem behaviors such as delinquency and teenage pregnancy. IQ gains among children who attend Head Start programs in American communities do not last for more than a few years. the Head Start program currently serves the majority of children who are eligible by virtue of their poverty level.

11 . Research using the HOME has revealed that [Hint] the HOME–IQ correlation is similar among adopted and biological children. the HOME–IQ relationship declines in middle childhood. family living conditions do not predict children’s intelligence above and beyond the effects of parental intelligence and education. HOME scores predict IQ gains only among low-SES ethnic minority children.

12 . Researchers use factor analysis to [Hint] classify test items according to the age at which a typical child could first pass them. identify the underlying mental abilities that contribute to successful intelligence test performance. calculate the amount of error associated with an examinee’s score. identify highly intelligent children and to diagnose those with learning problems.

13 . Studies examining the correlational stability of IQ indicate that [Hint] IQ scores fluctuate widely throughout the school years. preschool IQ predicts elementary school IQ well, but not middle or high school IQ. the closer in time two testings are, the stronger the relationship between the scores. the younger the child was at the time of first testing, the better the prediction of later IQ.

14 . The __________ measures both general intelligence and four intellectual factors: verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, spatial reasoning, and short-term memory. [Hint] Stanford-Binet The Bayley Scales WPPSI-R WISC-III

15 . The Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence is made up entirely of items assessing [Hint] perceptual responses. infant complex cognitive skills. habituation/recovery. fine and gross motor skills.

16 . The WISC-III and the WPPSI-R [Hint] are more accurate measures of intelligence in early and middle childhood, than in adolescence and adulthood. provided one of the first means through which children with speech and language disorders could demonstrate their intellectual strengths. were the first set of tests appropriate to measure intelligence throughout the lifespan. tend to produce scores slightly lower than those obtained on other measures of intelligence.

17 . Which factor of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale is likely to be the least culturally biased? [Hint] short-term memory verbal reasoning quantitative reasoning spatial reasoning

18 . Which of the following is supported by kinship studies on IQ? [Hint] IQ correlations for fraternal twins remain constant over the lifecourse. Greater IQ similarity for identical than fraternal twins is evident by 6 months of age. The IQ resemblance of identical twins is greater in adolescence and adulthood than during childhood. The IQ correlation for fraternal twins reared together is higher than for identical twins reared apart.

19 . Which of the following is supported by research on IQ scores? [Hint] Childhood IQ is only weakly associated with occupational attainment. Educational attainment is a stronger predictor of occupational success than is IQ. Fluid intelligence is a much better predictor of academic achievement than is crystallized intelligence. IQ is more important than other factors, such as motivation and personality characteristics, in predicting school performance.

20 . Which of the following is supported by research on ethnic differences in IQ among American children? [Hint] Black and Hispanic children score, on the average, 15 points below white children on measures of general intelligence. When black and white children are matched on family income, the black–white IQ gap disappears. Ethnicity and socioeconomic status account for over half of the total variation in IQ. No ethnic differences exist on infant measures of habituation/recovery to visual stimuli.

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