1. __________ are sex cells that contain __________ chromosomes each.
a. Gametes; 23
b. Gametes; 23 pairs of
c. Zygotes; 46
d. Autosomes; 23 pairs of
1. Language areas in the cerebral cortex
a. are found exclusively in the left hemisphere
b. are fully are fully lateralized at birth lateralized at birth
c. develop as children acquire language
d. are not fully functional until adulthood.
1. The most consistent asset of resilient children is:
a strong bond with a competent, caring adult.
high academic performance in elementary school.
a disorganized home environment.
1. Why is the field of child development considered interdisciplinary?
A. Scientific curiosity is the prevailing factor that led to the study of children.
B. The beginning of public education led to a demand for knowledge about what to teach children.
C. Contributions from researchers and professionals in different fields help solve everyday problems concerning children.
D. Research was stimulated by social pressure to better children’s lives.
1. In the United States
a. all teenage mothers are guaranteed welfare benefits
b. there is no time limit for a family on welfare.
c. welfare recipients must engage in volunteer work while acquiring work skills.
d. a state can prevent welfare payments from increasing if recipients have more children
1. Vygotsky believed that __________ are necessary for children to acquire the ways of thinking and behaving that
make up a community’s culture.
a. cooperative dialogues with more knowledgeable members of society
b. active, independent role-playing efforts
c. a series of nested environmental structures
d. the environmental influences that occur during a sensitive period
1. Temper tantrums tend to occur because toddlers
a. frequently compete with siblings for desired toys
b. are easily overwhelmed and often have a difficult temperament.
c. recall that crying as an infant got them immediate adult attention.
d. cannot control the intense anger that often arises when an adult rejects their demands.
1. What period of human development brings the most rapid time of change?
the prenatal period
infancy and toddlerhood
1. When her newborn brother cried, two-year-old Melly watched her mother’s reactions. On a later occasion when her brother cried, Melly patted him and spoke softly to him. This is an example of
a. joint attention
c. social referencing.
d. emotional self-regulation.
1. Infants of depressed mothers
a. often turn to their fathers for caretaking needs
b. have abnormally low cortisol levels.
c. quickly learn to sooth themselves
d. are less attentive to their surroundings.
1. Which of the following descriptions defines the family in its most common form?
a. a group of people, related by blood, who divide responsibilities, such as child rearing, food provision, and protection
b. a commitment between two adults who pledge faithfulness to each other
c. a mother giving birth to her children and providing food and shelter until the age of 18
d. an enduring commitment between a man and woman who feed, shelter, and nurture their children until they reach maturity
1. Three-year-old Giselle says, “I swimmed like a fish, Mommy!” Giselle’s addition of the -ed ending, although incorrect, shows her growing awareness of
1. Professor Chan believes that language is a unique human accomplishment that children acquire naturally due to the structure of the brain. Professor Chan supports the __________ perspective of language development.
1. According to social learning theory, as children grow older
a. they become more selective in what they imitate.
b. operant conditioning is more effective than classical conditioning in influencing behavior
c. they depend more on their parents than on their friends for reinforcement
d. they are less likely to act to satisfy basic needs, such as hunger and thirst.
1. The common goal of investigators who study child development is to
join the fields of psychology, sociology, anthropology, biology, and neuroscience
predict academic success during adolescence.
analyze human behavior and its effects on family relationships.
describe and identify those factors that influence young people during the first two decades of life.
1. Marcus was abused by his parents during his preschool years. Now in elementary school and living with a
foster family, Marcus’s school counselor believes those early negative events can be overcome by his now
positive life circumstances. The counselor is emphasizing the role of __________ in development.
1. The development of __________ memory is linked with the emergence of the __________ self
a. recognition; social
b. working; enduring
c. semantic; categorical
d. autobiographical; remembered
1. Each person is made up of trillions of __________ and 23 __________.
a. genes; billion cells
b. cells; matching pairs of chromosomes
c. matching pairs of chromosomes; genes