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TABLE 3 Results of HLM Analysis Predicting Team Member Virtual Collaborationa

Variables Coefficient γ (SE)

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Level 1 predictors Virtual teamwork experience .08 (.04) Virtual teamwork situational judgment .00 (.02) Level 2 predictors Team type .25∗ (.12) Team technology support .04 (.05) Team geographic dispersion −.04∗ (.02) Empowering team leadership .51∗∗∗ (.14) Cross-Level interaction Empowering team leadership∗Virtual teamwork

situational judgment .10∗ (.04)

Note. aAnalyses were based on listwise deletion (n = 193 individuals in 29 teams) ∗∗∗p = .001 ∗p < .05

Empowering Team Leadership

Virtual Teamwork Situational Judgment

Te am

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ol la

bo ra

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Low High






Figure 2: Moderating Effect of Empowering Team Leadership on the Relationship Between Virtual Teamwork Situational Judgment and Team

Member Virtual Collaboration.

but the relationship was not significant when empowering team leadership was low. Although our primary focus was the interactive effect of VT- SJ with empowering leadership, which in accordance with Hypothesis 1 was significant, Hypothesis 1 also implies a positive direct relationship between VT-SJ and team member virtual collaboration. However, this




Empowering Leadership

Te am

V ir

tu al

C ol

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ra tio












Team Dispersion



Figure 3: Moderating Effect of Team Geographic Dispersion on the Relationship Between Empowering Team Leadership and Team Virtual


direct effect was not significant. We discuss this finding in more detail in the discussion section.

Hypothesis 2 predicted a moderated mediation (conditional indirect) effect whereby the indirect relationship between VT-SJ and team mem- ber performance through team member virtual collaboration is moderated by empowering team leadership. To test the association of team mem- ber virtual collaboration with team member performance, a prerequisite condition for this moderated mediation effect, we regressed team mem- ber performance on VT-SJ and team member virtual collaboration. This relationship was significant (γ = .63, p < .001), providing preliminary evidence for the moderated mediation effect predicted in Hypothesis 2. As a more integrative test of this hypothesis, we used an open-source, R-based web utility by Selig and Preacher (2008) that uses the coeffi- cients and standard errors from the HLM analysis with a Monte Carlo method (Mackinnon et al., 2004) to compute the size of indirect effects. Based on 20,000 repetitions, we computed the size of the indirect effect at high (mean + 1SD) and low levels (mean − 1SD) of the team empower- ing leadership moderator variable and also examined the 95% confidence interval for each of these indirect effects. In keeping with Hypothesis 2, the indirect relationship was positive and significant when empowering

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