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• Title Page • Abstract • Introduction • Review of Literature • Method

– Participants – Apparatus and Measures – Design – Procedures

• Expected Results • Reference Section

Key Elements

Title Page





• One paragraph

• 150 – 250 words

• Format – Purpose of Study

– Participants

– Methods and Materials

– Anticipated results






• Sets the stage for the project • Creates reader interest in the topic • Establishes the issues or concerns that

leads to the study • Conveys information about the problem • Places the study within the larger context • Reaches out to a specific audience


• The primary purpose of a review of literature is to demonstrate why your study is necessary.

• What research has been performed by others that relates to your topic

Review of Literature





• Review – Setting – Population

– Methods – Outcomes

• Evaluate – Relations

– Contradictions – Gaps

– Inconsistencies

Review and Evaluate

• Corrigan, Rowan, Green, Lundin, River, Uphoff- Wasowski, White and Kubiak (2002) conducted two studies examining the causal processes in contact, fear and rejection. Corrigan et al. posited two models to account for stigmatizing reactions. In the first model, labeled personal responsibility, beliefs about personality responsibility influences both the level of pity and anger displayed toward mental patients. Additionally, the variables of pity and anger influence helping behavior. In the second model, labeled dangerousness, perceived dangerousness influences fear of mental patients, which in turn influences the avoidance of the mentally ill.

An Excerpt from a Review of Literature





• Taken as a whole, it appears that exposing these myths as myths increases the acceptance of the mentally ill and that staged contact with a mentally person to expose myths has an even more powerful effect. Caution must be advised, though; Martin et al.’s (2002) and Alexander and Link’s (2003) studies and the first study of Corrigan et al. (2002) were based upon paper and pencil methodologies. And while Corrigan et al.’s (2002) second study involved staged Myths of violence 6 presentations, it was conducted in a college setting with a college sample.

Another Excerpt from the Same Review

• Participants – Who will be in your study?

– What population did you use?

– Were there any restrictions in the nature of your participant pool?






• Total number of participants and the number assigned to each condition

• Major demographic characteristics of the participants (age, sex, etc.)

• Way the participants were selected • Was the selection restricted in some way?

– All counseling majors – Only women – Only deaf

• How were the participants assigned?

Participant Information

Twenty-seven students from South University (12 women and 15 men) ranging in age from 17 to 43 years old, voluntarily participated in this experiment. There were 9 participants randomly assigned to each of the three conditions. Informed consent was obtained from all participants.






Sixteen undergraduates at South University (12 males and 4 females) participated in exchange for partial course credit. All participants performed in the same way. Data from 5 subjects who indicated that they did not learn English before 5 years of age were excluded from all analyses. No color- blind subjects were included in any of the experiments. Informed consent was obtained from all participants.


• Apparatus/Materials – Tells the reader what equipment and tools you

used in your experiment and to acquire the data







A survey was constructed and used that contains six simple yes or no questions dealing with honesty, cheating, stealing, and not getting caught (see appendix). A Monopoly game board was used for demonstrating question one.



The Social Phobia Scale was utilized in this study (see Appendix). It is a questionnaire consisting of 15 items in which the subject is asked to put a checkmark in the blank in front of any item that is applied to them in the last six months. It was created as an assignment in Psychological Statistics and Measurements class at South University. Internal reliability is been determined for the scale, and content and construct validity have been established as well.






Materials A website was created for presenting various surveys (see appendix). The Keirsey Temperament Sorter (Keirsey, 1998b) and the Keirsey Character Sorter (Keirsey, 1998c) were utilized to measure personality type. Two other surveys developed by the researcher were also administered: a short demographic survey (see Appendix) and an assessment of the degree of domestic violence experienced by each participant (see appendix). All the surveys were conducted on the computer with the results recorded on an answer sheet (see appendix).


• What type of design did you use? – Within subjects

• Counterbalancing

– Between subjects

– Quasi-experimental

– Experimental

– Correlational

– Survey/Descriptive






• Variables – What is your independent variable (s)? How

many levels?

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