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Social political factors.

The focus of the project is upon the social political factors that contributed to the outbreak of the genocide. The interest of the Tutsis and the Hutus is to live together in harmony in the same land. They want to prioritize the coexistence. They want to continue sharing their culture. It is what they have been doing for hundreds of years prior to colonization and prior to the formation of any sort of centralized government (Taylor, 2019). The Hutu farmers were as dependent on the Tutsi traders as much as the traders’ dependence on them is portrayed. Prior to division by the white people and the establishment of the Tutsi as Hamites, the two communities shared culture and intermarriages were common. The language of the two is also not very distinct showing a people that were united. The interest of both communities would thus be to return their relations to the state in which they were prior to colonization.

There is no common cause that is recognized as resulting in cases of genocide; all instances are dependent upon the background of each country. It is also dependent upon the perpetrator’s definition of the group and the people that are attributed with a certain group. On the Asian Continent, the context upon which genocide occurred was dependent upon communism as a sociopolitical and also as an economic doctrine (Taylor, 2019). It was mostly evident in Cambodia and China. The leaders if the Khmer Lounge in Cambodia combined a mix of extremist ideology and ethnic animosity resulting in disregard of the life of humanity which led to wanton killings on a large scale and misery. In Africa, the strategies of dividing people and the use of genocide in colonies was applied so as to gain economic and political power by the colonialists.

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The genocide in Rwanda was carefully orchestrated so that so that the Hutu and the Tutsi could annihilate each other and especially the members of the population disagreeing with extreme politics. Genocide was rooted much more deeply to be just attributed to ethnic differences between two people that had previously coexisted in peace (Taylor, 2019). The main cause are viewed as being socio-political; the manipulation of the people both during and after the colonialists had left the country. Genocide was as a result of internal and external forces that were at play to take advantage of the country. Prior to independence, the history of the country was manipulated by Western colonizers and after independence, the formation of a weak government as well as the failing of democracy within the country. The genocide was further facilitated by the indifference of the international community and westerners who were backing different fighting factions.

Goal of the project.

The goal is to manage peace achievement between Hutus and Tutsi in order to co-exist and cohabit together by promoting tolerance, forgiveness and better understanding. In this way to avoid another conflict. Conflicts eventually lead to destruction but also, conflict is an inescapable reality of human life, an aspect of our humanity. In the first half of the 20th century, Europe is an example of a continent that was boiled in never ending conflict as it experienced two world wars and was made up of totalitarian regimes. However, in the second half of the century, there was the creation of continental trade blocs such as the European Economic Community and the European Union (Ibreck, 2017). The result has been a continent that is far more prosperous and far more advanced in spite of the amount of destruction that they inflicted upon each other.

The Rwandan conflict too is an example of an embittered conflict between two people; between two social groups found within a country. In line with the Hamitic theory, the Rwanda political social and economic organization were all based upon the Tutsis (Ibreck, 2017). Though the minority group, the Tutsis are seen as the well-off invaders whose distant relatives claim a Eurasian origin. The Hutus thus submitted to the Tutsis who though they were few in number were rulers and were well off. The conflict in Rwanda is thus mostly an identity conflict whereby there is a group of people that are utterly convinced that the existence of another group threatens their existence (Ibreck, 2017). It is a sort of conflict that breaks out between communities that have previously coexisted but then differences are sowed between them along distinctions of their identity. The discord in Rwanda was sowed along the lines of ethnicities, territories, languages, religions and culture. The last decade of the 20th century was the most turbulent Rwanda has ever experienced in its history. The country was ravaged by civil war, genocide, mass migration, economic crisis, diseases, return of refugees and environmental destruction. Rwandan families were affected and are still dealing with impacts such as death, disease, disability, poverty, loss of dignity and rather need coexistence and cohabitation. In working on this project, the goal is thus to research how peace can be established between the two different factions (Ibreck, 2017). The goal is to come up with a way that can be applied that would acknowledge the difference between the two classes while at the same time making for a society that would be ultimately more peaceful.

 

Second-Track/Citizen Diplomacy initiatives

In the resolution of conflicts, there are intermediaries; people who become involved in the conflict. They are not considered to be part of the dispute but rather, they are people who are attempting to work with the disputing parties so that they can help them to resolve the conflict successfully and to transform it and to overall lessen the negative impact. At times, these intermediaries make formal efforts and are officially termed as professional meditators, arbitrators, judges, or negotiators (Dayton, 2021). In most cases however, the negotiators are people who are unofficially appointed and who hold the negotiations outside of the official tracks. They are unofficial third parties who intervene to help the arguing parties to work out their differences. When viewed on the international or the communal scale the term that is used to define this approach to conflict resolution is track two democracy or citizen diplomacy. Other terms that are used in describing this approach to conflict resolution is multitrack diplomacy, supplemental diplomacy, interactive conflict democracy, and back channel diplomacy.

The goal of citizen democracy initiatives is the creation of a low key environment that is non-biased and safe and which can be used to explore the ideas upon which a peaceful resolution of a disagreement can be attained. The participants in the exercise are expected to feel free enough to the extent that they can express their fears and their desires and further, ideas concerning the resolution of a conflict can be aired free from the restraints of the government. As a result, citizen democracy initiatives result in the development of mutual understandings of the different needs and the perceptions of different people (Dayton, 2021). Further, new ideas are brainstormed and there is the formation of strong, problem solving relations. Informal intermediaries are non-governmental actors such as religious institutions or individuals facilitating discussions.

In using the approach of citizen diplomacy approach in Rwanda, there are a number of advantages that will be enjoyed. Overcoming discrimination and prejudice is one of the associated advantages. One of the reasons why the conflicts between the Hutus and the Tutsi still persist is as a result of discrimination and prejudice between the meditating bodies. Meditating bodies have a vested interest on the potential resources of the country (Dayton, 2021). As a result, the mediator will favor the side that they feel will best help them to achieve their ultimate goals should peace be attained. Further, the causes of the conflict have been prejudged with some people biased against the Hutus while others are against the Tutsis. These factors make it difficult for any formal negotiation to occur. An informal discussion between the two parties would however surmount these barriers.

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