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Awareness Training (Schultz, Perls)

Nondirective Teaching (Rogers)

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Synectics (Gordon)

Programmed Learning (Skinner)

Mastery Learning (Bloom)

Training (Gagne)

Jurisprudential Teaching (Shaver)

Group Investigation (Thelen)

Role Playing (Shaftel)

Cooperative Learning (Johnson, Slavin, Aronson)



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An Example: The Inductive Thinking Model

The Inductive Thinking Model has nine logical steps:

1. Enumerating or gathering data

2. Grouping

3. Labeling

4. Discriminating

5. Comparing

6. Inferring

7. Hypothesizing

8. Evidencing

9. Generalizing

This model, introduced by Hilda Taba, prizes developing students’ ability to make inferences from data. Like all other models, it has a series of phases that unfold over time like acts in a play. Each phase looks and sounds different from the previous one, but like scenes in a play each is carefully articulated with the previous and the succeeding phases to achieve a cumulative effect.

A teacher who wished to use the model to present a lesson on Ernest Heming- way might start by showing a video biography of Hemingway’s life. This is phase 1: gathering data. After the video, the teacher would ask students to re- late items of information they remembered and would record the information on the board or on charts. The items might appear disconnected and random: “Had a fishing boat named the Pilar.” “He went to Spain three times during the Spanish Civil War.” “He had a house in Key West.” “He liked to write early in the morning while sitting on a balcony overlooking the streets of Paris.” Per- haps, the class might collect two dozen such items that students would remem- ber and contribute to the list. Phase 1 of the model always collects a database of some sort.

In phase 2, students would group the items from the database that belong to- gether. They would look at the sentences on the board and put certain items together because they bear some relationship with one another.



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In phase 3, students would give a title or a label to the groupings they were creat- ing. Examples might be, “Hemingway’s work habits as a writer” or “Hemingway the outdoorsman,” in which information about hunting on the Serengeti and fishing in Michigan would appear. Students around the class might group items in similar clusters, but there would also be some differences in the categories students created.

In phase 4, the students’ groupings of the items about Hemingway would be displayed in some fashion for all to see (charts, overheads). In this phase, dis- criminating, students explain the thinking behind their categories. “What really made this grouping hang together?” The categories and the thinking behind them are compared and contrasted as the teacher guides the students through a discussion of the different ways the information could be grouped and why.

In phase 5, the students make inferences, for example: Are any ideas occurring to them about Hemingway as a result of what they have done so far? Are there any inferences they would be willing to make about Ernest Hemingway as a man? In a recent demonstration lesson we did with adults, one person said at this point, “I think Hemingway was really a very lonely man.” At no point in the video does Hemingway’s biographer ever make that point explicitly, so no single item of information in it would ever lead a viewer to that conclusion. Yet as a result of having been through these phases and manipulating the data intellectu- ally in the way those phases require, inferences such as this and others become available to students.

There are several other phases to this model, but we will not develop them in any detail. Our objective is only to show that the steps or phases in a model of teach- ing unfold in a planful way so as to lead students toward developing a particular way of thinking. We could summarize the first five phases of Taba’s model by listing the key question of each phase:

Phase 1: What are the data?

Phase 2: How would you group the data?

Phase 3: What name would you give to your categories or groups?

Phase 4: What makes your groups hold together?

Phase 5: What inferences would you be willing to make about the topic?



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The notion of models of teaching was introduced by Bruce R. Joyce in 1968 through Teacher Innovator: A Program to Prepare Teachers, funded by the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. In 1972, Joyce and Marsha Weil published Models of Teaching, which described a large number of models in detail. These descriptions have been updated in eight subsequent editions (1980, 1986, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2003, 2008, 2014), which have added models and elaborated prior descriptions until we now have over two dozen models of teaching well described with anecdotes, examples, and outlines of steps. These books have been an important contribution to the literature on teaching be- cause they made operational the theoretical approaches to learning developed by such luminaries as Jerome Bruner, David Ausubel, B. F. Skinner, William Glasser, Richard Suchman, Jean Piaget, and others.

To analyze each model of teaching, Joyce and Weil asked and answered the fol- lowing questions for each theorist:

p What is the orientation to knowing and learning to know in this model? Does the teaching appear to be aimed at specific kinds of thinking and means for achieving it?

p What sequence of events occurs during the process of instruction? What do teachers and students do first, second, third?

p How does the teacher regard the student and respond to what he or she does?

p What teacher and student roles, relationships, and norms are encour- aged?

p What additional provisions, materials and support systems are needed to make the model work?

p What is the purpose of the teaching? What are the likely instructional and nurturant effects of this approach to teaching?

The descriptions of these models display the range of teaching alternatives and allow comparison of their unique features. The language of models enables us to visualize clear patterns of action in teaching and learning. Thus we can talk more precisely about what we might do if we taught a lesson through a different model. We can also talk more precisely about why we might do so and what the expected effects of using a particular model might be.



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This chapter provides an introduction to eight models of teaching. Each is de- scribed in only the briefest details; in-depth study is required for gaining skill in them. We illustrate the range of models that have been developed and the wonderful menu for learning that lies before us. Most teachers already use one or two of these models, but few of us have been exposed to the full range, much less trained in the subtleties of implementing them and matching them to dif- ferent students and curricula.

Our intention is to give a flavor for the different qualities of mind that models of teaching develop in students. Readers can focus further reading and learning on models that best meet their current priorities. On The Skillful Teacher website (www.RBTteach.com/TST7), we provide a bibliography of original sources on the models for readers interested in going beyond this chapter on a given model provided by Joyce and Weil. To make the models more vivid, we use a specific content area, beginning geometry, in our survey.

Advanced Organizer Model

Advanced organizers are concepts derived from well-defined bodies of knowl- edge: mathematics, grammar, sociology, and so forth. The set of geometry concepts in Figure 13.2 illustrates a well-defined, integrated, and progressively differentiated set of organizing concepts.

In the Advanced Organizer Model, these concepts are introduced by the teacher progressively, one by one, through lectures, films, demonstrations, or readings. The student then applies the organizer and demonstrates mastery of the geom- etry concept. For example, the teacher might define an acute angle as any angle that is less than a right angle (less than 90 degrees), and then might clarify specif- ics through examples. In phase 2, the student might be asked to make a drawing


Point Space Line Segm


Line R ay

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