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Source: From G. Hofstede and G. J. Hofstede, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005).

 

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138 Part 2 The Role of Culture

and weak uncertainty avoidance, while, in contrast, many Latin, Mediterranean, and Asian nations are characterized by high power distance and strong uncertainty avoidance.

The integration of these cultural factors into two-dimensional plots helps illustrate the complexity of understanding culture’s effect on behavior. A number of dimensions are at work, and sometimes they do not all move in the anticipated direction. For exam- ple, at first glance, a nation with high power distance would appear to be low in indi- vidualism, and vice versa, and Hofstede found exactly that (see Figure 4–7). However, low uncertainty avoidance does not always go hand in hand with high masculinity, even though those who are willing to live with uncertainty will want rewards such as money and power and accord low value to the quality of work life and caring for others (see Figure 4–9). Simply put, empirical evidence on the impact of cultural dimensions may differ from commonly held beliefs or stereotypes. Research-based data are needed to determine the full impact of differing cultures.

Figure 4–9 Masculinity versus Uncertainty Avoidance

U n

ce rt

a in

ty A

vo id

a n

ce (

U A

I) st

ro n

g

Masculinity (MAS)feminine masculine

w e

a k

5

85

95

75

65

55

45

35

25

15

115

105

5 25 54 65 85

Guatemala ⬥

Chin a

Thail and ⬥

Japa n ⬥

Hong Kong

Singa pore

Mala ysia

Philip pines

India⬥

Moro cco

Bang lades

h ⬥

Arab ctrs,

S. Ko rea ⬥

Taiw an ⬥

Viet nam

W A frica ⬥E

Afri ca ⬥

Iran⬥

Indon esia⬥

Pakis tan

Colombia⬥

Portugal⬥

Croatia ⬥

Greece ⬥

Slovakia (110) ⬥ S. Africa⬥

Israel ⬥

Malta ⬥

Finland ⬥

Ireland⬥

France⬥

Austria⬥

Canada total ⬥

Canada Quebec ⬥

Poland⬥

Hungary⬥

Italy ⬥

Belgium NI ⬥ Belgium Fr

Sweden⬥

Germany⬥

Denmark⬥

Switzerland Ge⬥

Switzerland Fr⬥

Ecuador⬥

Norway⬥

Netherlands⬥

Great Britain ⬥

United States⬥

New Zealand ⬥

Australia⬥

Estonia ⬥

Luxembourg, Czech Rep.⬥

Spain ⬥

Russia ⬥

Romania ⬥

Bulgaria ⬥

Slovenia ⬥

Serbia⬥

Argentina ⬥

Suriname ⬥

Jamaica⬥

Brazil⬥

Salvador⬥

Chile ⬥

Uruguay⬥

Mexico⬥

Peru ⬥

Trinidad⬥

Costa Rica ⬥

Panama

Venezuela⬥

slant ed

regular Europe and Anglo countries

Asia and Muslim countries

quadrant partition lines

Latin America

Legend

italics

⬥ Turke

y

Source: From G. Hofstede and G. J. Hofstede, Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005).

 

 

Chapter 4 The Meanings and Dimensions of Culture 139

The Hofstede cultural dimensions and country clusters are widely recognized and accepted in the study of international management. His work has served as a springboard to numerous recent cultural studies and research projects.

Trompenaars In 1994, another Dutch researcher, Fons Trompenaars, expanded on the research of Hofstede and published the results of his own ten-year study on cultural dimensions.44 He administered research questionnaires to over 15,000 managers from 28 countries and received usable responses from at least 500 in each nation; the 23 countries in his research are presented in Table 4–5. Building heavily on value orientations and the rela- tional orientations of well-known sociologist Talcott Parsons,45 Trompenaars derived five relationship orientations that address the ways in which people deal with each other; these can be considered to be cultural dimensions that are analogous to Hofstede’s dimen- sions. Trompenaars also looked at attitudes toward both time and the environment, and the result of his research is a wealth of information helping explain how cultures differ and offering practical ways in which MNCs can do business in various countries. The following discussion examines each of the five relationship orientations as well as attitudes toward time and the environment.46

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