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HQS-620 Project Management Methodologies Template

Directions: Research information about the project management methodologies listed below to complete the table. In addition, conduct your own research on other project management methodologies and include this in the table below. The assignment requires a minimum of two or three scholarly resources. A resource may be used more than once in the last column of the template.

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Project Management Methodology Description Pros Cons Example of when this methodology would be appropriate Scholarly Resource
Lean/Six Sigma

 

Lean Six Sigma is a managerial approach that combines the concepts of Lean and Six Sigma. In the conventional sense, Lean seeks to eliminate the eight types of waste, whereas Six Sigma helps to enhance the output process efficiency by detecting and correcting the sources of defects (errors) and reducing variability in organizational processes (Antony et al., 2018). Using the Lean Six Sigma methodology, the five stages strive to find the underlying cause of inefficiencies and may be used in any process that has a substantial quantity of data or quantifiable qualities accessible. Health-care organizations rely heavily on Lean Six Sigma approaches because they have the ability to decrease faults that might lead to medical mistakes. For starters, applying Six Sigma extends a continual process improvement technique to all levels of the organization. I individual operations will keep improving over time once the system has been integrated into the company’s culture. This is due to the fact that the system closely monitors the processes, finding and addressing problems as they arise. Embracing a culture of recognizing and eliminating potential flaws before they arise, rather than trying to correct them after they have occurred, helps companies save money and time that would otherwise be spent on fixing the problem. Six Sigma, by nature of being a quality improvement method rather than a cost reduction strategy, may not always result in cost reductions, which is a surprising finding. In rare instances, it might even result in an increase in production costs. This is due to the fact that the cost reductions realized as a result of eliminating returned items, costly reworks, and faulty products are only a consequence of the process improvement. With time, incremental quality improvement may result in additional overhead and capital expenditures being incurred, wiping out any savings that were initially realized. Six Sigma, by nature of being a quality improvement method rather than a cost reduction strategy, may not always result in cost reductions, which is a surprising finding. In rare instances, it might even result in an increase in production costs. This is due to the fact that the cost reductions realized as a result of eliminating returned items, costly reworks, and faulty products are only a consequence of the process improvement. With time, incremental quality improvement may result in additional overhead and capital expenditures being incurred, wiping out any savings that were initially realized. Antony, J., Palsuk, P., Gupta, S., Mishra, D., & Barach, P. (2018). Six Sigma in healthcare: a systematic review of the literature. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 35(5), 1075–1092. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijqrm-02-2017-0027

 

Waterfall

 

The waterfall technique is an approach that stresses a linear flow from the start of a project to the completion of the project. Engineering professionals use the approach on a frequent basis as the approach depends on extensive planning, documentation, and sequential execution. In waterfall project management, the project is meticulously planned out, with specific needs and deliverables for each step. Progress is documented on a regular basis throughout the route, and each phase is finished before the next one is initiated. The first advantage of this method is that it uses a clear structure which avoids confusion during a project. Its methodical nature enables the clean transfer of information from one phase to another. One downside of the method is the lack of flexibility which makes incorporating changes in the project to be difficult (Ivаnоvа & Kadurin, 2021). Testing is delayed until the completion of the project which can be costly if anything was done wrong. For example, conducting a health promotion project in a targeted community would be appropriate in using this methodology because of its clear structure Ivаnоvа, D., & Kadurin, V. (2021). A new proposed software development methodology for healthcare industry. THERMOPHYSICAL BASIS of ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES (TBET 2020). https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0042261
PDSA

 

This methodology is used to carry out change and improve processes (Christoff, 2018). The model follows steps that include planning, do, study, and act. The advantages of this methodology include easy implementation as it requires less bureaucracy. The method is also less disruptive to both staff and patients hence one is less likely to encounter resistance when using the method (Christoff, 2018). It is more time-consuming, and this strategy divides process improvement into smaller segments. The method is not ideal for emergencies or difficult situations. (Christoff, 2018). The method is appropriate for small projects which are less disruptive to the organization. Christoff, P. (2018). Running PDSA cycles. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, 48(8), 198–201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cppeds.2018.08.006
Agile

 

The approach involves a breakdown of a project into manageable parts that are easy to execute. The method heavily relies on continuous improvement at every stage and the ongoing cooperation of all stakeholders (Holden et al., 2021). This approach is “more adaptable than other methods, allowing it to respond to changes considerably more quickly (Holden et al., 2021). At the beginning of each cycle, a client can add, remove, or amend requirements, as well as adjust priorities,” providing guidance to the design team on the work for the following iteration. This approach is also associated with better communication and fast release of products. Some of the cons of this approach include difficulty in predicting the final outcome, limited documentation, and poor resource planning (Holden et al., 2021). This approach is ideal for healthcare informatics projects for example developing and launching a software program. Holden, R. J., Boustani, M. A., & Azar, J. (2021). Agile Innovation to transform healthcare: innovating in complex adaptive systems is an everyday process, not a light bulb event. BMJ Innovations, 7(2), 499–505. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjinnov-2020-000574
Scrum Scrum is a project management approach “that is based on incremental and iterative techniques and is used in the creation of healthcare information systems. SCRUM leverages the agile framework that aims to create value” for clients at every stage of a project life cycle. It is adaptive, rapid, flexible, and effective (Holden et al., 2021). This approach can assist teams in ensuring project deliverables are completed as per the schedule and in an efficient manner. It ensures that time and resources are used efficiently. Large projects are broken down into manageable tasks (Holden et al., 2021). This approach is associated with scope creep as there is no definite end date put on the project. The approach is also ideal for small teams and larger teams can be challenging to manage (Holden et al., 2021). The approach demands cooperation and a commitment from everyone less the project fails. This methodology is appropriate for the development of software to be used in health care informatics. Holden, R. J., Boustani, M. A., & Azar, J. (2021). Agile Innovation to transform healthcare: innovating in complex adaptive systems is an everyday process, not a light bulb event. BMJ Innovations, 7(2), 499–505. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjinnov-2020-000574

 

 

Reference

Antony, J., Palsuk, P., Gupta, S., Mishra, D., & Barach, P. (2018). Six Sigma in healthcare: a systematic review of the literature. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management35(5), 1075–1092. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijqrm-02-2017-0027

Christoff, P. (2018). Running PDSA cycles. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care48(8), 198–201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cppeds.2018.08.006

Holden, R. J., Boustani, M. A., & Azar, J. (2021). Agile Innovation to transform healthcare: innovating in complex adaptive systems is an everyday process, not a light bulb event. BMJ Innovations7(2), 499–505. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjinnov-2020-000574

Ivаnоvа, D., & Kadurin, V. (2021). A new proposed software development methodology for healthcare industry. THERMOPHYSICAL BASIS of ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES (TBET 2020). https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0042261

 

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