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Description of Instruments

Three instruments enabled development of this database. The Spence Children Anxiety Scale (SCAS) was utilized to determine anxiety levels of children (Orgiles et al., 2016). The instrument consist of 44 items with the following levels each;

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Description of Instruments Three instruments enabled development of this database
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0) Never

1) Sometimes

2) Often

3) Always.

Addiction severity index (ASI) was also utilized to determine drug abuse for elderly people (McLellan et al., 1997). The items used run from D1 – D13. The scores were in 5 levels;

0) Not at all

1) Slightly

2) Moderately

3) Considerably

4) Extremely

A 10 panel urine test was also conducted for the elderly prior to self-report (McLellan et al., 1992). The items of test were; cannabis, Amphetamines, Cocaine, Benzodiazepines, Opioids, Barbiturates, Phencyclidine, Quaaludes, Propoxyphene and Methadone.


Orgiles, M., Fernandez-Martinez, I., Guillen-Riquelme, A., Espada, J. P., & Essau, C. A. (2016). A systematic review of the factor structure and reliability of the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale. Journal of Affective Disorders, 190, 333-340.

McLellan, A. T., Cacciola, J. S., & Zanis, D. (1997). The addiction severity index-lite. Center for the Studies on Addiction, University of Pennsylvania/Philadelphia VA Medical Center.

McLellan, A. T., Kushner, H., Metzger, D., Peters, R., Smith, I., Grissom, G., … & Argeriou, M. (1992). The fifth edition of the Addiction Severity Index. Journal of substance abuse treatment, 9(3), 199-213.

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