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Health Needs and Primary Health Care Services, Health Promotion Approaches

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and Strategies in the COVID-19 Pandemic

Lianne is 32-year-old single parent who gave birth to a baby girl in the early period of

the COVID-19 pandemic. Prior to that period, she worked in a Day Care Centre for

babies which is currently not now operational. Her partner, who is in a visiting

relationship, is the father of the baby and her two other children. He used to visit

regularly and provide financially for the family. He now seldom visits, and the

relationship has become fractured. Lianne is hypertensive and diabetic but is reluctant

to leave the house to reduce her exposure to the COVID-19 virus while travelling to

the health Centre for post-natal, child health or chronic disease clinic visits. On many

days there is little or no food on the table. With online delivery of classes, neither her

5-year-old daughter who was registered to start school in September nor her son who

recently passed the SEA exam, has been able to participate in classes. With Lianne’s

chronic diseases, the inability of the school-aged children to participate in online

classes and the unavailability of regular meals for mother and children, the present

and future physical, mental, and social health conditions of the family are being


1. a) The fundamental conditions for health are varied and diverse. Discuss three

(3) ways in which the long-term health and wellbeing of the children can be

affected because of the family’s present situation (6 marks)

b) Describe how The W.H.O ‘Health in All Policies’ Approach is evident in the

Government of Trinidad and Tobago’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic

period to compensate for the lack of financial and other resources that Lianne’s

family experienced. (5 marks))


2 a) Social justice is the view that everyone deserves equal economic, political, and

social rights and opportunities while equity is the quality of being fair or impartial.

Describe how infractions of these two principles have become evident during the

global COVID-19 pandemic, affecting those of lower socio-economic status like Lianne

with the potential for disproportionate distribution of infections and death.


b) One of the strategies of the Caribbean Charter for Health Promotion is ‘Reorienting

Health Services’. In Lianne’s situation, how do you suggest that members of the

Primary Health Care Team can identify and respond to her situation? (4 marks)

Total (20 marks).

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