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Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards by Chapter

The Council on Social Work Education’s Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards requires all social work students to develop nine competencies and recommends teaching and assessing 31 related component behaviors, listed as Educational Policy (EP) Competencies 1–9 below. The multicolor icons (see figure at right) and end of chapter “Competency Notes” connect these important standards to class work in the chapters

identified below with bold blue type.

The 9 Competencies and 31 Component Behaviors (EPAS, 2015) Chapter(s) Where Referenced

Competency 1—Demonstrate Ethical and Professional Behavior: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16

a. Make ethical decisions by applying the standards of the NASW Code of Ethics, relevant laws and regulations, models for ethical decision making, ethical conduct of research, and additional codes of ethics as appropriate to context

1

b. Use reflection and self-regulation to manage personal values and maintain professionalism in practice situations

1

c. Demonstrate professional demeanor in behavior; appearance; and oral, written, and elec- tronic communication

1

d. Use technology ethically and appropriately to facilitate practice outcomes 1

e. Use supervision and consultation to guide professional judgment and behavior 1

Competency 2—Engage Diversity and Difference in Practice: 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13

a. Apply and communicate understanding of the importance of diversity and difference in shaping life experiences in practice at the micro, mezzo, and macro levels

1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13

b. Present themselves as learners and engage clients and constituencies as experts of their own experiences

1, 5, 13

c. Apply self-awareness and self-regulation to manage the influence of personal biases and values in working with diverse clients and constituencies

1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 13

Competency 3—Advance Human Rights and Social, Economic, and Environmental Justice: 1, 5, 9, 13

a. Apply their understanding of social, economic, and environmental justice to advocate for human rights at the individual and system levels

1, 5, 9, 13

b. Engage in practices that advance social, economic, and environmental justice 1, 5, 9, 13

Competency 4—Engage in Practice-informed Research and Research-informed Practice: 1

a. Use practice experience and theory to inform scientific inquiry and research 1

b. Apply critical thinking to engage in analysis of quantitative and qualitative research meth- ods and research findings

1

c. Use and translate research evidence to inform and improve practice, policy, and service delivery

1

Competency 5—Engage in Policy Practice: 1, 16

a. Identify social policy at the local, state, and federal level that impacts well-being, service delivery, and access to social services

1, 16

b. Assess how social welfare and economic policies impact the delivery of and access to social services

1

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The 9 Competencies and 31 Component Behaviors (EPAS, 2015) Chapter(s) Where Referenced

c. Apply critical thinking to analyze, formulate, and advocate for policies that advance human rights and social, economic, and environmental justice

1, 16

Competency 6—Engage with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities:

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16

a. Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks to engage with clients and constituen- cies

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16

b. Use empathy, reflection, and interpersonal skills to effectively engage diverse clients and constituencies

1

Competency 7—Assess Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities:

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16

a. Collect and organize data, and apply critical thinking to interpret information from clients and constituencies

1

b. Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in the analysis of assessment data from clients and constituencies

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16

c. Develop mutually agreed-on intervention goals and objectives based on the critical assess- ment of strengths, needs, and challenges within clients and constituencies

1

d. Select appropriate intervention strategies based on the assessment, research knowledge, and values and preferences of clients and constituencies

1

Competency 8—Intervene with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Communities:

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

a. Critically choose and implement interventions to achieve practice goals and enhance capaci- ties of clients and constituencies

1

b. Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in interventions with clients and con- stituencies

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14

c. Use inter-professional collaboration as appropriate to achieve beneficial practice outcomes 1

d. Negotiate, mediate, and advocate with and on behalf of diverse clients and constituencies 1

e. Facilitate effective transitions and endings that advance mutually agreed-on goals 1

Competency 9—Evaluate Practice with Individuals, Families, Groups, Organizations, and Com- munities:

1

a. Select and use appropriate methods for evaluation of outcomes 1

b. Apply knowledge of human behavior and the social environment, person-in-environment, and other multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks in the evaluation of outcomes

1

c. Critically analyze, monitor, and evaluate intervention and program processes and outcomes 1

d. Apply evaluation findings to improve practice effectiveness at the micro, mezzo, and macro levels

1

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Empowerment Series

Charles H. Zastrow Professor Emeritus

University of Wisconsin-Whitewater

Karen K. Kirst-Ashman Professor Emeritus

University of Wisconsin-Whitewater

Sarah L. Hessenauer Associate Professor

University of Wisconsin-Whitewater

Understanding Human Behavior

and the Social Environment

ElEvEnth EDItIOn

Australia ● Brazil ● Mexico ● Singapore ● United Kingdom ● United States

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Printed in the United States of America Print Number: 01 Print Year: 2017

Empowerment Series: Understanding Human Behavior and the Social Environment, 11th edition Charles H. Zastrow, Karen K. Kirst-Ashman, and Sarah L. Hessenauer

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To Taylor Grayson, Sydney Harper, and Aiden Joel Pauley and Kathy Zastrow

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v

1 Introduction to Human Behavior and the Social Environment 1

PART I Infancy and Childhood 2 Biological Development in Infancy and Childhood 45

3 Psychological Development in Infancy and Childhood 95

4 Social Development in Infancy and Childhood 159

5 Ethnocentrism and Racism 233

PART II Adolescence 6 Biological Development in Adolescence 282

7 Psychological Development in Adolescence 320

8 Social Development in Adolescence 361

9 Gender, Gender Identity, Gender Expression, and Sexism 410

PART III Young and Middle Adulthood 10 Biological Aspects of Young and Middle Adulthood 455

11 Psychological Aspects of Young and Middle Adulthood 485

12 Sociological Aspects of Young and Middle Adulthood 536

13 Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity 604

PART IV Later Adulthood 14 Biological Aspects of Later Adulthood 640

15 Psychological Aspects of Later Adulthood 672

16 Sociological Aspects of Later Adulthood 703

Brief ContentsBrief Contents

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v i i

Preface xxi About the Authors xxv

CHAPTER 1

Introduction to Human Behavior and the Social Environment 1 A Perspective 3

Explain the Importance of Foundation Knowledge for Social Work with an Emphasis on Assessment 5

The Profession of Social Work 6 The Process of Social Work: The Importance

of Assessment 6 Identifying and Evaluating Alternative Courses of Action 6

✦ Highlight 1.1 Generalist Social Work Practice 7

Review the Organization of This Book That Emphasizes Lifespan Development 7

✦ Highlight 1.2 Case Example: Unplanned Pregnancy 8

✦ Highlight 1.3 Bio-Psycho-Social Developmental Dimensions Affect Each Other 9

Common Life Events 9 Typical Developmental Milestones 10

Describe Important Concepts for Understanding Human Behavior 11

Human Diversity, Cultural Competency, Oppression, and Populations-at-Risk 11

✦ Highlight 1.4 Culture and the Importance of Cultural Competency 11

Focus on Empowerment, the Strengths Perspective, and Resiliency 13

✦ Highlight 1.5 Assessing Your Strengths 17

Critical Thinking About Ethical Issues 19

✦ Highlight 1.6 Ethics in Social Work at the International level: human Rights and Social Justice Issues 20

✦ Highlight 1.7 Application of values and Ethics to Bio- Psycho-Social Assessments 21

Employing Conceptual Frameworks for Understanding Human Behavior and the Social Environment: A Person-in-Environment Perspective 22

✦ Highlight 1.8 Goals of Social Work Practice 23

Employ a Conceptual Framework for Understanding Human Behavior and the Social Environment: Ecosystems Theory 24

✦ Highlight 1.9 A Summary of Some of the Other theoretical Perspectives Addressed in this Book 25

Understanding Key Concepts in Systems Theories 26 Application of Systems Concepts to a Case Example of Child

Abuse 28 Understanding Key Concepts

in the Ecological Perspective 32

Recognize People’s Involvement with Multiple Systems in the Social Environment 35

Micro, Mezzo, and Macro Systems 35 Interactions Between Micro Systems and Macro Systems 36

Recognize Social Worker Roles 37 A Variety of Roles 37

Identify Knowledge, Skills, and Values Necessary for Generalist Social Work Practice 39

✦ Highlight 1.10 Knowledge, Skills, and values needed for Social Work Practice 39

Contents

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v i i i Contents

The Impacts of Macro-System Policies on Practice and Access to Services 72

1 Spotlight on Diversity 2.1 International Perspective on Abortion Policy 74

✦ Highlight 2.4 Intact Dilation and Extraction (late-term Abortion) 78

Incidence of Abortion 79 Reasons for Abortion 79 Methods of Abortion 80 The Importance of Context and Timing 81 Arguments for and Against Abortion 81

1 Spotlight on Diversity 2.2 Effects of Abortion on Women and Men 81

Social Worker Roles and Abortion: Empowering Women 82 Abortion-Related Ethical Dilemmas in Practice 83

✦ Highlight 2.5 More Abortion-Related Ethical Dilemmas in Practice 84

Explain Infertility 85 Causes of Infertility 85

✦ Highlight 2.6 Aging Affects a Woman’s Fertility 86

Psychological Reactions to Infertility 86 Treatment of Infertility 87 Assessment of Infertility 87 Alternative Options for Starting a Family 88 Social Work Roles, Infertility, and Empowerment 91

✦ Highlight 2.7 the Effects of Macro Systems on Infertility 92

Chapter Summary 92

1 Spotlight on Diversity 2.3 A Feminist Perspective on Infertility Counseling and Empowerment 93

Competency Notes 94

Web Resources 94

CHAPTER 3

Psychological Development in Infancy and Childhood 95 A Perspective 96

Summarize Psychological Theories About Personality Development 97

The Psychodynamic Conceptual Framework 97

✦ Highlight 3.1 Definitions of Common Defense Mechanisms Postulated by Psychoanalytic theory 99

Critical Thinking: Evaluation of Psychodynamic Theory 101

Neo-Freudian Psychoanalytic Developments 101 Behavioral Conceptual Frameworks 102 Phenomenological Conceptual Frameworks: Carl

Rogers 102 Feminist Conceptual Frameworks 104

Chapter Summary 42

Competency Notes 43

Web Resources 44

PART I Infancy and Childhood

CHAPTER 2

Biological Development in Infancy and Childhood 45 A Perspective 46

Describe the Dynamics of Human Reproduction 46 Conception 47 Diagnosis of Pregnancy 48 Fetal Development During Pregnancy 48 Prenatal Influences 49 Drugs of Abuse 51 Prenatal Assessment 52

✦ Highlight 2.1 Social Workers Can Assist Women in Getting Prenatal Care: Implications for Practice 54

Problem Pregnancies 54 The Birth Process 55

✦ Highlight 2.2 An International Perspective on low-Birth- Weight Infants 60

Early Functioning of the Neonate 61

Explain Typical Developmental Milestones for Infants and Children 61

Growth as a Continuous, Orderly Process 61 Specific Characteristics of Different Age Levels 62 Individual Differences 62 The Nature-Nurture Controversy 62 Relevance to Social Work 63

Profiles of Typical Development for Children Ages 4 Months to 11 Years 63

Age 4 Months 63 Age 8 Months 63 Age 1 Year 64 Age 18 Months 65 Age 2 Years 65 Age 3 Years 66 Age 4 Years 66 Age 5 Years 67 Ages 6 to 8 Years 68 Ages 9 to 11 Years 69 A Concluding Note 69

Significant Issues and Life Events 69

Examine the Abortion Controversy: Impacts of Social and Economic Forces 69

✦ Highlight 2.3 Case Example: Single and Pregnant 70

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