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topic foreign language( English) 

Couldn’t get a research question and thesis statement. 

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English would be fine 

APA style citations 

Minimum 2500 words double spaced in 12-point font, Calibri/ Arial 

Sources must be reputable and reliable 

Scholarly journals 

Academic books 

Minimum 12 sources maximum 20 sources  

All sources can also be journal articles

  • Topics in the social sciences
  • Require American Psychological Association (APA) documentation

Three key challenges

Support a thesis

Cite sources to avoid plagiarism

Integrate quotes and other source materials

  • Select a good topic
  • Use a systematic approach
  • Do not get behind with your work

1. Is it interesting to you? Do you want to know the answer to your question?

2. Are there ample sources of information of the kind required in your assignment? Or is there only one major source?

3. Does it fit the size/length of the paper and time given?

4. Is the topic too trivial for an academic project?

5. Is the topic specific/ narrow enough? A topic that is too broad (e.g. How will the Internet affect business?) will be hard to manage.

Three major phases:

1. Research Stage

2. Writing Stage

3. Revision Stage

Give credit when you borrow someone else’s words or ideas

(be it a direct quote, a summary, paraphrase or synthesis)

Topics related to UB majors:

Communication

Psychology

Sociology

Business/Economics/International Trade

Inter- disciplinary

-2500 words (minimum)

double-spaced

APA documentation style

argumentative (thesis-driven paper)

-Individual assignment

-minimum 10 sources (max. 20):

6 -10 scholarly journal articles

4-10 non-scholarly materials including credible websites (organization/educational/ governmental websites; news websites and other credible websites)

1-2 books (academic books)

  • What are your assignment requirements?
  • What is your tentative research question?
  • How long will your paper be?
  • How much time can you spend on this assignment?

*research paper is an

argumentative paper

see notes on UB learns for more

information on the research

paper

*

*

Writing the Research Paper

FROM OUTLINE TO FIRST DRAFT

Writing the Body Paragraphs

SUPPORTING POINTS

The Body Section of Research Paper

This section comments on the readings by

critically examining various points made by previous studies (sources)

AND

synthesizing those points to present definitive conclusions about the issue =SUPPORTING EVIDENCE

Writing the Body Section

Information should be logically presented:

➢Each paragraph contains a main idea/issue/single focus

➢Each idea is supported by evidence/research discussed

fully and adequately (extensive use of external sources to

substantiate claim)

➢Information from other sources MUST be referenced

correctly (APA Style: intext citations and References page)

Writing the Body Section

Some methods to ensure paragraph is well- developed:

•Use examples / illustrations

•Cite data/statistics

•Examine what other people(experts) say using

quotes and paraphrases

•Use case studies

Use Specific Evidence

Evidence: facts, statistics, examples, illustrations, expert opinions

Facts- objectively verified

Statistics- collections of numerical facts

E.g.: The positive consequences of terrorism on the people and economy cannot be underestimated. To combat terrorism, large amount of funds would be needed. The budget allocated to providing homeland security has risen sharply, or doubled, to be more exact, “from U.S.$15 billion in the Fiscal Year (FY) of 2001 to U.S.$32 billion in FY 2003” (Gold, n.d., p. 5). An additional U.S.$135 billion has been injected into antiterrorism and improving homeland security. This increase in defense spending does not go to waste. It will slowly flow into the various sectors in the economy and help improve the overall performance of the economy (Ojo & Haughey, 2002, para. 7).

Use Specific Evidence

Citing expert opinion

opinions of experts are more convincing than those of individuals with no specialized knowledge.

what is important is not just the quality of evidence but also the credibility of the person offering it.

E.g.: According to Harvard Business School professor Michael Porter, (2002), a pre-eminent strategy expert, in the wake of the dot-com shakeout, strategy is more important than ever for companies.

Paragraph Graphic Organiser TOPIC SENTENCE Say it:

Introduce the main idea of the paragraph and say how it relates to the question/thesis

SUPPORTING EVIDENCE Prove it:

▪provide evidence and support of how the main idea relates to

the thesis statement

▪refer to your research

▪use statistics, facts, case studies, specific examples, expert

quotations

CONCLUDE IT Clinch it:

Summarise briefly how your main evidence helps to develop your main idea

Writing the Body Paragraphs

SAMPLES

Poor parenting is linked to delinquency because family is the

primary environment in which the child is raised in and

where his or her personality and behaviours are shaped. It

has been emphasised in many studies that parenting during

childhood is imperative in relation to delinquency (Hoeve,

Dubas, Gerris, van der Laan, & Smeenk, 2011). Dishion and

Patterson’s 2006 study claims that family forms the basic social

ecology in which a child’s behaviour is established through

encouraging or damaging reinforcement (as cited in Moitra &

Mukherjee, 2010). Basically, how a parent nurtures their child

and creates the environment in which they nurture their child in

is vital in forming the child’s personality and behaviour. In a

study done by Moitra and Mukherjee (2010) comparing

delinquents and non-delinquents, it has been found that in

delinquent families, the way of upbringing is poor in contrast to

in non-delinquent families. This is further supported by a

study done by Hoeve et al. (2009) which stated that “delinquent

behaviour is inhibited during childhood and adolescence by

bonds to the family and school” (p. 764).

Topic sentence

Synthesis of

supporting

evidence=studies

Sample 1

Despite the availability of many effective treatments,

people with mental disorders are often hesitant and

reluctant in receiving treatment or choose not to complete

their treatment process due to mental illness stigma

(Corrigan et al., 2014), as they want to evade the

stereotypical label associated with acquiring mental health

care (Corrigan, 2004 as cited in Corrigan et al., 2014).

Over 70% of people, of all ages, worldwide do not obtain

any mental health treatment despite being diagnosed with

mental disorders (Thornicroft, 2007 as cited in Henderson

et al., 2013), with evidence proposing that social stigma is

one of the factors which increases the tendency of people

with mental disorders shunning or deferring treatment

(Henderson et al., 2013).

Synthesis of

supporting

evidence

Sample 2

Excessive Consumption and Potential Health Issues

Obesity

Weight gain is a health risk associated with sports drinks due to their high sugar content

contributing to excess calories in the diets of consumers (Schneider & Meadows‐Oliver, as

cited in Pirotin et al., 2014). In a study by Cordrey et al (2018), it was found that a student

drinking a bottle of sports drink daily for a whole year can gain an excess of 5.9 kilograms.

Additionally, evidence has shown that sports drinks have contributed to an increase in calories

in children’s diets between 1989 and 2008 (Pirotin et al., 2014). Sugar-sweetened beverages

like sports drinks have been found to be the largest source of added sugars in the diet of

American youth, contributing to an increase in caloric intake (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly

Report, 2011), further exacerbating the prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents nationwide.

This is also alarming because of the carry-on effect as children grow older. Due to the habitual

consumption of sports drinks, children who grew up drinking them will continue to do so as

they grow older, constantly gaining weight through excessive drinking. In a meta‐analysis of

epidemiological studies, it is also shown that higher consumption of sports drinks among

children contributes to excess energy intake translating weight gain which also leads to weight

gain through adulthood (Pirotin et al., 2014). As aforementioned, regular or excessive intake of

sports drinks can substantially increase the risk of obesity in children and adolescents

(Committee on Nutrition and the Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness, 2011). Thus, sports

drinks can contribute to adult obesity as well.

Sample 3

Social media has created an increasingly narcissistic society where adolescents

are obsessed with instant fame, social comparison, along with the loss of

morals. (Thesis Statement)

Social Comparison of Appearance

Selfie-taking and narcissism

Social media has certainly encouraged the social comparison of appearance among

users. According to Krizan and Bushman (2011), narcissists have a tendency to

engage in downward comparisons, making negative evaluations of people around

them. These negative evaluations help to create a sense of superiority and entitlement

that supports an all-positive illusion of themselves. This is especially so in the case of

taking selfies where the concept of self-focus is reinforced and affirmed in the form

of likes and positive comments. As the act of posting selfies evoke a sense of

validation from others and improves self-esteem, users will be more inclined to repeat

these actions. For example, on Instagram, it has been found that the number one

hashtag, with over 288 million tags was #me (Websta, 2016, as cited in Chae, 2017).

Multiple researches have found that selfie-taking and narcissism are mutually

influencing (Halpern et al., 2016; Reed et al., 2018). This means that the more

someone posts self-portraits, the more narcissistic they become, because greater

exposure to self-image leads to more frequent comparison (Chae, 2017). As such, it is

highly likely that the use of social media increases or creates some form of narcissism

in the users.

Sample 4

The Body Section of Research Paper

Presenting the counterargument:

✓do not present your findings from one point of view only

✓present the other point of view by showing:

-how one side is stronger than the other,

OR

-how the argument is weaker or the data does not support it

Counter-Argument and Rebuttal Some researchers, however, are still in favour of extroverts when it comes to

leadership. Extroverts are bold, energetic, lively, and dominant and appear more leader-like. Several researchers (Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhardt, 2002; Riggio, 2012) reported that there is a consistent positive relationship between extroversion and leader emergence. They also found out that there is a fairly stable relationship between extroversion and leader effectiveness. Grant et al. (2010) stated an important statistic that, “Whereas just 50% of the general population is extroverted, 96% of managers and executives display extroverted personalities. And the higher you go in a corporate hierarchy, the more likely you are to find highly extroverted individuals”(p.1). Thus, some studies say that extroverts can become better leaders as they are bold, assertive and take control of the situation. Also, the researchers have all the right numbers to prove their point.

However, these studies are not absolutely correct and have certain flaws in measurement. Firstly, the definition of a leader has to be made clear. Kahnweiler (2009)broadly defines a leader as someone who ensures that the work gets done, plans for change, coaches and works with others to achieve results (p.1). Thus, leadership success depends on people skills and leader-follower relationships. Research suggested that only extroverts who possessed good interpersonal skills make great leaders. Some introverts may have better interpersonal skills and thus may make much better leaders. Thus, when leaders possess these skills, introversion or extroversion does not matter very much (Riggio, 2012).

Body Paragraphs: Activity 2

1. Analyse the “body” paragraphs given to your group

2. Discuss the effectiveness of the paragraph in supporting the thesis

▪What type of supporting evidence is provided?

Facts? Statistics? Expert opinion? Examples? Case studies?

▪Is evidence elaborated and substantiated with relevant citations?

▪Is information logically presented?

Writing the Conclusion

Writing the Conclusion

ultimately serves as a summary of the writing preceding it

BUT THAT IS NOT ALL!

Writing the Conclusion A good conclusion will

➢bring together the main arguments

➢draw conclusions based on those

arguments

➢bring a sense of completeness to the

paper

Four Stages of Writing Conclusions

Writing the Conclusion Some suggestions for writing a conclusion:

➢serve as a call for action

➢set forth a warning or hypothesis

➢raise a question or questions

Writing the Conclusion ➢introduce a relevant quote

➢tell an appropriate anecdote

➢Suggest further research (if needed)

➢DON’T include new material(s)

Writing the Conclusion

SAMPLE

In conclusion, there is a link between poor parenting and

delinquency. To recap, poor parenting includes negative parenting

styles, especially a neglecting parenting style, and low levels of

parental attachment. These factors are important in predicting

delinquency, in addition to family being the primary environment

of upbringing. It has been explained and shown that with poor

parenting, no matter positive or negative peer influence, age and

attempts for positive parenting, likelihood of delinquency remains to

be high. It therefore shows how strong a link poor parenting has to

delinquency. Today, family structures have many variations, such as

same sex parents, single parents, grandparent family and the list goes

on. Future research should thus take such families in consideration

in predicting delinquency in relation to parenting for the study to

remain relevant. To address poor parenting, families may seek

community or family support services to aid with any difficulties

they may face, in hopes that it may ease the burden of raising a

child. Now that it has been established that poor parenting is linked to

delinquency, hopefully parents would become more cautious in

raising their children and in maintaining a good relationship with

them.

Summary of

main points

Suggest

further

research

Suggestion;

call for

action

Writing Style

There is an expectation that academic writing

➢uses formal language

➢shows strong control over grammar

➢is cohesive and flowing

➢follows the correct referencing conventions.

otherwise…

Use impersonal language, avoiding the use of personal

pronouns such as I, you, we.

▪ Avoid clichés – roller coaster ride, spiralling out of control, at

the end of the day, in this day and age

▪ Keep sentences to the point – avoid wordiness. Be concise

Academic style:

▪ formal, but not verbose

▪ polite, but not personal

Writing Style

Reference materials: 1. Longman Writer

2. Bedford Handbook

3.Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Seventh Edition

4. Student Sample Papers

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