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INTERNAL

CONTROL HIERARCHY

Base Layer Control – Interlocks, sequences and regulatory control

Base Layer Control – Intervention control

Advanced – Fuzzy logic rule-based

control

Advanced – Model

Predictive Control

Plant Wide

Optimization

APET

PLC

Complexity

Programmable

Logic

Controller

Advanced

Processing

Equipment

Technology?

6

INTERNAL

PROCESS CONTROL OBJECTIVES

1. Control Objectives

– Maintain all controlled variables (CVs) within

limits (feasible soln.)

– Reduce Variation in PV

– Most important,

2. Optimization Objectives

– ONLY applicable to manipulated variables

(MVs)

– Shift the mean

– Only available on MPC algorithms

Control technologies can have up to two objective types, depending of the level of control sophistication.

Control Objective Optimization Objective

Delta

Avg.

Before

Control

Optimisation

Optimization

Objective

Process

Limit

PROCESS

VARIABLE

Control

Objective

7

INTERNAL

CONTROL IN ANGLO AMERICAN Layers of Control

Description

E.g. Autonomous Equipment

(Onboard Control)

E.g. Flotation Unit Control

(PLC/SCADA)

E.g. Load out Control

(PLC/SCADA)

Regulatory Control (PID / Sequences / ARC) – Process Ilocks & Alarms – S88, ASM Process

Safety

&

Stability

Level 2 100ms

ICS/S88

Levels

Enterprise Wide Control (ERP) / Optimization (LP Models)Enterprise Wide Control

&

Optimization

Level 5 Days/ weeks/

months

Level 5

Mine Wide Controlling Plant Wide Controller Logistics Controller

Real Time Optimization and Scheduling

MES / MIS & Dynamic Simulation

Optimization

& Scheduling Level 4

30min – 8hrs Level 4

E.g. Dynamic Dispatch

Systems, Drill Positioning

Systems

E.g. Flotation Circuit, Mill

Circuit (Model Predictive

Controllers)

E.g. Pipeline Controller

Soft Sensors & Advanced Control (Fuzzy / MBC / MPC) Unit

Optimization

&

Stability

Level 3 10s-30min

Level 2

Instruments / Devices / Equipment – Interlocks and Alarms – ASM

Mining Processing/Plant Logistics

E.g. Drives / Conveyors /

Float Cell Motor Circuit

Breakers

E.g. Rail CarE.g. OEM protection on trucks

Equipment

Protection

Physical

Process

Level 1 1ms

Level 0

Level 1

Level 0

ISA 95

Levels

9

INTERNAL

ADVANCED LAYER FLOTATION CONTROL Layers of Control

Description

E.g. Autonomous Equipment

(Onboard Control)

E.g. Flotation Unit Control

(PLC/SCADA)

E.g. Load out Control

(PLC/SCADA)

Regulatory Control (PID / Sequences / ARC) – Process Ilocks & Alarms – S88, ASM Process

Safety

&

Stability

Level 2 100ms

ICS/S88

Levels

Enterprise Wide Control (ERP) / Optimization (LP Models)Enterprise Wide Control

&

Optimization

Level 5 Days/ weeks/

months

Level 5

Mine Wide Controlling Plant Wide Controller Logistics Controller

Real Time Optimization and Scheduling

MES / MIS & Dynamic Simulation

Optimization

& Scheduling Level 4

30min – 8hrs Level 4

E.g. Dynamic Dispatch

Systems, Drill Positioning

Systems

E.g. Flotation Circuit, Mill

Circuit (Model Predictive

Controllers)

E.g. Pipeline Controller

Soft Sensors & Advanced Control (Fuzzy / MBC / MPC) Unit

Optimization

&

Stability

Level 3 10s-30min

Level 2

Instruments / Devices / Equipment – Interlocks and Alarms – ASM

Mining Processing/Plant Logistics

E.g. Drives / Conveyors /

Float Cell Motor Circuit

Breakers

E.g. Rail CarE.g. OEM protection on trucks

Equipment

Protection

Physical

Process

Level 1 1ms

Level 0

Level 1

Level 0

ISA 95

Levels

13

INTERNAL

ADVANCED LAYER FLOTATION CONTROL Layers of Control

Description

E.g. Autonomous Equipment

(Onboard Control)

E.g. Flotation Unit Control

(PLC/SCADA)

E.g. Load out Control

(PLC/SCADA)

Regulatory Control (PID / Sequences / ARC) – Process Ilocks & Alarms – S88, ASM Process

Safety

&

Stability

Level 2 100ms

ICS/S88

Levels

Enterprise Wide Control (ERP) / Optimization (LP Models)Enterprise Wide Control

&

Optimization

Level 5 Days/ weeks/

months

Level 5

Mine Wide Controlling Plant Wide Controller Logistics Controller

Real Time Optimization and Scheduling

MES / MIS & Dynamic Simulation

Optimization

& Scheduling Level 4

30min – 8hrs Level 4

E.g. Dynamic Dispatch

Systems, Drill Positioning

Systems

E.g. Flotation Circuit, Mill

Circuit (Model Predictive

Controllers)

E.g. Pipeline Controller

Soft Sensors & Advanced Control (Fuzzy / MBC / MPC) Unit

Optimization

&

Stability

Level 3 10s-30min

Level 2

Instruments / Devices / Equipment – Interlocks and Alarms – ASM

Mining Processing/Plant Logistics

E.g. Drives / Conveyors /

Float Cell Motor Circuit

Breakers

E.g. Rail CarE.g. OEM protection on trucks

Equipment

Protection

Physical

Process

Level 1 1ms

Level 0

Level 1

Level 0

ISA 95

Levels

18INTERNAL

MP CONTROLLER – MOTOTOLO

Uncontrolled mass pull

RD ~ 1.07 kg/ L

Controlled mass pull

RD ~ 1.16 kg/ L

HG conc. flow

MG conc. flow

19INTERNAL

MP CONTROLLER – MNC

Yellow line is either:

Flow rates

Froth depth

We need to ask

(graph is not

labelled, we need

data)

Relative Standard Deviation –

Standard deviation (data

spread with respect to the

mean of a set of values) of

two factors over a range

(readings at different times)

20INTERNAL

GRADE CONTROLLER – AMANDELBULT U2

PGM Lo-Limit

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