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 2 assignments module 9 source chart and lit review follow rubric 

 thinking and writing in psychology 

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 due in 6 hours Ive sent you the microagression paper that is my lit review that was completed . the intergrated lit review is the example that the professor asked for that has the highlights that go with the references used  in lit review of microagressions  

 1 page each 275 words 5 sources apa format psychology 

NAME:

RQ:

H:

Premise 1:

Premise 2:

Sources Chart

P1 Supporting StatementsParaphrased StatementsSources/Citations
P2 Supporting StatementsParaphrased StatementsSources/Citations

You should also use color to have a better visual of whether or not you have actually integrated your sources for each premise (main point) of your paper. You can highlight or use different color ink. If you print in black and white use a few different colors of highlighters on the printed paper. If you are enrolled in an online section, printing is not an issue and your submission should utilize a different color font for each source.

Running head: THE EFFECTS OF MINDFULNESS 1

THE EFFECTS OF MINDFULNESS 2

The Effects of Mindfulness on Performance Anxiety Versus Social Anxiety

Student ID

Governors State University

Thinking and Writing in Psychology PSYC 2102

Professor

Term

The Effects of Mindfulness on Performance Anxiety Versus Social Anxiety

Success in social evaluative situations is important. It can be a critical part of a person’s life (Beltzer, Nock, Peters & Jamieson, 2014). Social evaluative situations, and the measure of performance, can take place in the workplace or at school. Even asking someone for a date can be considered to be socially evaluative performance. There are certain expectations when it comes to social performance situations. Many people suffer with anxiety due to the fear of failing in these situations. Behavior displays, physiological responses, and the quality of social performance can all be related to levels of anxiety (Belzer, et.al, 2014). Research looks at stressful evaluative situations in regards to anxiety; in particular, performance anxiety and social anxiety (Beltzer et. al., 2014).

Alleviating, or reducing, performance anxiety and social anxiety has been approached in many different ways. Studies of mindfulness, one of the newer non-traditional forms of intervention, has been shown to be effective (Golden et.al, 2016). Regular practices that strengthen mindfulness have been shown to improve task performance, guide individuals towards their goals, and encourage individuals to use cognitive abilities to get to their valued, or chosen, ends (Goodman, Kashdan, Mallard & Schumann, 2014); those abilities that can lead to a successful social evaluation experience. Mindfulness practices come in several forms, many of which have been associated with reducing performance anxiety or social anxiety. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of practicing mindfulness on performance anxiety and social anxiety.

Yoga

In order for an individual to accomplish mindfulness, three elements must be achieved. Participants must pay attention to the present moment, recognize and know their emotions, and have self-awareness of the present (Butzer, Ahmed & Khalsa, 2016). Research has shown that yoga is an effective practice for acquiring mindfulness.

Yoga is an ancient practice utilizing breathing exercises, body postures, and meditation (Butzer, Ahmed & Khalsa, 2016). Yoga listens and responds to bodily sensations (Goodman, Kashdan, Mallard & Schumann, 2014). Positive appraisal of these sensations can help in social evaluative situations. Participants that reframed stress arousal had less anxiety and shame, less avoidant non-verbal gesturing, and performed better (Beltzer et.al, 2014).

Yoga helps to move the participant to a comfortable physical and mental space (Goodman, Kashdan, Mallard & Schumann, 2014). Past research suggests that yoga reduces negative psychological states. In musicians, it reduces musical performance anxiety (Butzer, Ahmed & Khalsa, 2016). The benefits of moving to comfortable mental space is apparent in other performance activities. Mindful athletes were able to decrease task-related worries and experience energized flow and full involvement and less anxiety (Goodman, Kashdan, Mallard & Schumann, 2014).

Achieving a comfortable physical space is also important, and yoga can help to accomplish this. According to three studies, yoga increases mindfulness by building “mindfulness in motion” (Butzer, Ahmed & Khalsa, 2016). Finally, Yoga assists in focusing on the present (Goodman, Kashdan, Mallard & Schumann, 2014). When yoga builds mindfulness, it frees attention from remembering and planning (Butzer, Ahmed & Khalsa, 2016). Focusing on the present moment allows psychological flow. When the person performing an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and enjoyment in the process of an activity resulting in a loss of time and space, psychological flow is attained (Csikszentmihalyi & Asakawa, 2016) This, in turn, may decrease anxiety during the performance.

Yoga has been associated with a number of benefits in regards to anxiety of all types. Yoga can decrease stress and fatigue, reduce depression and anxiety, and lead to more positive and fewer negative emotions (Goodman, Kashdan, Mallard & Schumann, 2014). Research relates mindfulness with yoga, and yoga with well-being (Butzer, Ahmed & Khalsa, 2016). Therefore, yoga can be reasonably associated with less anxiety and increased satisfaction with life.

Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction

Performance anxiety and social anxiety share some similarities, but they are distinct from each other. Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common condition, very much like performance anxiety. SAD can introduce other anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and depression (Golden et.al, 2016). Both performance anxiety and social anxiety can cause impairment in functioning in social, educational or occupational settings (Golden et.al, 2016). To relieve those who suffer from anxiety, specifically social anxiety, a method of intervention that has been found to be effective in establishing mindfulness is MBSR, mindfulness-based stress reduction.

Mindfulness-based stress reduction is the most researched form of mindfulness training (Goldin & Gross, 2010). Mindfulness-based stress reduction consists of breath-focused and body scan-based attention, walking and eating meditation, and open evaluation of moment to moment experience (Goldin & Gross, 2010). According to research, utilizing MBSR therapy showed improvement in mood, functioning, quality of life, self-esteem, negative self-views, depression, and, in relation to this paper, social anxiety (Golden et.al, 2016).

There is much interest in MBSR in regards to reducing anxiety and depression disorders, especially how it works in relation to emotions (Goldin & Gross, 2010). Emotions can play a major role in how an individual feels before, during and after a social evaluative experience. According to research, MBSR reduces stress, anxiety and depression by emotional regulation (Goldin & Gross, 2010), Emotional regulation influences which emotions arise and occur during social evaluative situations (Goldin & Gross, 2010). It addresses how long emotions stay, how they are experienced, and how they are expressed (Goldin & Gross, 2010). SAD patients, in social situations, can benefit from emotional regulation. SAD influences individuals to focus on emotions related to negative thoughts, self-imagery, and other’s facial expressions (Goldin & Gross, 2010). MBSR training allows those with SAD to regulate their feelings towards themselves and others. Emotions can be regulated through reappraisal. Research shows evaluating situational thoughts and emotional states can be a useful tool (Beltzer et.al, 2014). The patient can then view their emotions as not harmful, but a coping tool for better performance. Therefore, situational evaluation can bring less stress and anxiety.

Conclusion

Developing mindfulness, regardless of the manner in which it is achieved, is beneficial in lessening performance anxiety or social anxiety. Research has demonstrated that mindfulness training can reduce the levels of anxiety and stress a person experiences during social evaluative situations. Although many studies have addressed performance anxiety and social anxiety suffering from a traditional healing path, little research has been complete in its efforts to examine the effects of mindfulness. There have been far less studies on non-traditional MBSR as compared to cognitive behavioral therapy, a more conventional method to reduce social anxiety (Golden et.al, 2016).

It is difficult to weigh the outcome, whether or not mindfulness has greater effects on performance anxiety or social anxiety. Gauging the level of comparable relief is challenging due to the lack of common techniques addressing both performance anxiety and social anxiety. While mindfulness-based stress reduction incorporates a form of yoga, it does not single out yoga as its defining component. Research shows that mindfulness and acceptance training is more effective than traditional sports psychological skills training for performance anxiety (Goodman, Kashdan, Mallard & Schumann, 2014). Studies have shown that mindfulness and acceptance-based therapy reduces social anxiety, but to what degree as compared to performance anxiety? Even so, it can be clearly stated through minimum research, that mindfulness training shows promise of reducing anxiety in both cases, especially in social evaluative situations.

References

Beltzer, M. L., Nock, M. K., Peters, B. J., & Jamieson, J. P. (2014). Rethinking butterflies: The affective, physiological, and performance effects of reappraising arousal during social evaluation. Emotion14, 761-768. doi:10.1037/a0036326

Butzer, B., Ahmed, K., & Khalsa, S. S. (2016). Yoga enhances positive psychological states in young adult musicians. Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback41, 191-202. doi:10.1007/s10484-015-9321-x

Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Asakawa, K. (2016). Universal and cultural dimensions of optimal experiences. Japanese Psychological Research58, 4-13. doi:10.1111/jpr.12104

Goldin, P. R., & Gross, J. J. (2010). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder. Emotion10, 83-91. doi:10.1037/a0018441

Goldin, P. R., Morrison, A., Jazaieri, H., Brozovich, F., Heimberg, R., & Gross, J. J. (2016). Group CBT versus MBSR for social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology84, 427-437. doi:10.1037/ccp0000092

Goodman, F. R., Kashdan, T. B., Mallard, T. T., & Schumann, M. (2014). A brief mindfulness and yoga intervention with an entire NCAA Division I athletic team: An initial investigation. Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice1, 339-356. doi:10.1037/cns0000022

In this module students should: 

1. demonstrate knowledge of and familiarity with APA formatting guidelines. 

2. integrate various sources into a cohesive argument. 

3. evaluate peer-review comments.

1. review all posted examples and resources regarding APA formatting and integration of source material. 

2. submit a completed sources chart, including color coordination. 

3. submit title page with proper APA format and including PSYC 2102-specific criteria as stated on the paper rubric. 

1. Create an upload the title page for your literature review (LR) paper. You must include all components discussed in APA formatting and those included on the LR Rubric. 

2 .Please find attached the sources chart with instructions. You will edit this document to include your own information for your paper. Add columns when needed and feel free to change the table format if desired. 

Angela Nash

October 3, 2021

Thinking and Writing in Psyc_2021FA

Literature Review Topic Assignment

Be sure to read the overview for specifications and links to helpful sites. You will spend a significant amount

of time on this topic; I highly suggest you choose something of interest to you. You will need to submit your

topic choice for the literature review paper. You will also need to include a few sentence description of the

topic and what you’re interested in learning about it.

The literature review topic that I will focus on for my paper is “Identifying and Preventing Microaggressions

in Modern Day America”. With awareness that microaggressions are influenced by unconscious biases, I

am interested in shining a light on the common examples of microaggressions and the preventative

measures that individuals and organizations can take to mitigate their prevalence today.

1

Identifying and Preventing Microaggression in Modern Day America

Angela Nash

Thinking and Writing in Psychology

PSYC_2021

Dr.Mollie Mercer

10/22/21

2

Identifying and Preventing Microaggression in Modern Day America

Microaggressions are quotidian abusive remarks, derogatory statements, and

indignities carried out by, in many instances, a well-meaning individual in a presiding group

against an individual in a minority group. It is more difficult detecting microaggressions

than other undisguised acts of discrimination, such as racism and sexism. They are not

meant to hurt, and the individual carrying out the acts most likely has no clue they just made

an offensive remark. The actual act or words are frequently not offensive, but the underlying

meaning discloses discrimination. Microaggressions seem to be discriminations that are just

lurking beneath the surface. They can be identified by analyzing remarks and actions

perpetrated by individuals and understanding the bias behind them. Though seemingly

unsubstantial, they do have detrimental effects on an individual’s mental and overall health

over time (Derald Wing Sue, 2020).

Luckily, there are some recommendations on how to prevent microaggressions. When

first meeting an individual, it is essential to make a mental assessment of them and how they

are different from you. The brain already does this, but if one is active in the process, then they

are more likely not to get caught up in it and become aware when making untoward comments.

It is crucial to question our beliefs and evaluate the physical elements that instinctively

prompt your mind to make an assumption regarding an individual. When one is more reserved

about the assumptions the brain makes about an individual, it is easy to prevent oneself from

buying into stereotypes founded on an individual’s physical appearance. It is essential to

acknowledge the part played by institutions and society. Recognize how institutions were

established around and benefit from suppressing minorities, like the zero-tolerance initiatives at

public schools guarantee that black students have some interaction with the criminal justice

system (Levchak, 2018).

3

References

Derald Wing Sue, L. S. (2020). Microaggressions in Everyday Life. John Wiley & Sons.

Levchak, C. C. (2018). Microaggressions and Modern Racism: Endurance and Evolution.

Springer.

Module 9

From this week forward with the exception of another career week, you will be focusing on improving

your integration and writing of your literature review. The first item to discuss is the sources chart. This

chart is a way to visually see if you are appropriately integrating your sources. It is a step further than

the reference points assignment from a previous module. Please review the “organizing premises

example” as well. In addition to this, I have uploaded an example of an integrated literature review. The

paraphrased information is color-coded by source. This is just to give you an idea of how it works in the

paper as a whole. Please note that this is used only as an example of appropriate integration. The paper

has other flaws, including but not limited to page length requirement, colloquial phrasing, etc.

Writing your paper and submitting your second assignment (title page) necessitates the use of proper

APA formatting. Although you’ve already been given resources regarding APA formatting, if you have

not reviewed your book, examples, or the owl.purdue.edu site, you likely still have questions. You MUST

review these resources. Comments will be provided on your submissions indicating formatting errors or

areas for improvement. As a review, the following are some of the basics:

1. After you paraphrase an idea, concept, etc. you must cite it. APA cites as (author last name(s), year of

publication). For example:

Program evaluation of the resilience curriculum demonstrated effectiveness in decreasing levels of

perceived bullying behaviors in middle school (Cipra, 2019).

2. Your paper title appears at the top of the first page of text as centered and NOT bold.

3. Your premises should be abbreviated to a short phrase and should be center, bold. You should have

2-3 of these first order headings. If you want to have three, most students opt for “Conclusion”.

4. Be sure to review the paper rubric for all information needed on the title page. The title page is your

second assignment in this module.

5. You must have a running head, which is an abbreviated version of your full paper title. It actually has

the words “Running head:” on the title page but not the other pages. The other pages will have the

abbreviated title without the words “Running head”.

6. Your header must also have page numbers.

7. The last page of your paper should be the Reference page. It should have the word References

centered and NOT bolded.

8. Be sure to review ALL sources for correct reference formatting.

Continued NOTE: If you have not yet been using your APA Manual or an online tool, you need to do so

now. Your reference page is due this week and must be in correct APA format. If you have articles from

an APA journal, their references will be in the correct format. You can also review the example papers

posted in the Syllabus & Orientation tab to see examples of the reference page (and the entire, scored

paper).

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