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1. How does Mycenaean art differ from art of the Geometric period and what does this suggest about the people making and enjoying these objects?

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2. What kinds of art could be found in Greek sanctuaries, and how did these objects reflect the cultural interests of contemporary visitors to the sanctuary?

3. How did the Greeks go about depicting the human form in the time period between 800-450 BC and how do these depictions reflect the Greek self-image?

4. What kinds of stories did Greeks tell with figural art, and what kind of conclusions about Greek society can we draw from their choices.

TWO PAGE TOTAL. HALF PAGE FOR EACH QUESTION

A History of

Greek Art

A History of

Greek Art MArk D. StAnSbury-O’DOnnell

This edition first published 2015 © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Registered Office John Wiley & Sons Ltd, The Atrium, Southern Gate, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 8SQ, UK

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Stansbury-O’Donnell, Mark, 1956– author. A history of Greek art / Mark D. Stansbury-O’Donnell. pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-4443-5014-2 (cloth) – ISBN 978-1-4443-5015-9 (pbk.) 1. Art, Greek. 2. Art and society – Greece – History – To 1500. I. Title. N5630.S734 2015 709.38–dc23

2014018396

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

Cover image: Detail of mosaic from House of Dionysos, Delos, c. 166-100 bce. Photo © age fotostock / Alamy

Set in 10/13pt Minion by SPi Publisher Services, Pondicherry, India

1 2015http://www.wiley.com/wiley-blackwell

For Wendy

vii

Brief Contents

1 introduCtion and issues in the history of Greek art 1

2 the early and Middle Bronze aGes c. 3100–1600 bce 19

3 the late Bronze aGe ii–iii (c. 1600–1075 bce) 48

4 the suB-MyCenaean, ProtoGeoMetriC, and GeoMetriC Periods (c. 1075–700 bce) 68

5 Contexts i: CiviC, doMestiC, and funerary 97

6 the seventh Century (c. 725/700–625/600 bce) 130

7 Contexts ii: sanCtuaries and arChiteCture 152

8 the sixth Century (c. 625/600–480 bce) 179

9 narrative 209

10 the fifth Century (c. 480–400 bce) 235

11 the ProduCtion of Greek art and its Markets 265

12 the fourth Century to c. 330 bce 286

13 identity 319

14 the hellenistiC Period c. 330–30 bce 341

15 ePiloGue 380

viii

Illustrations xiii Acknowledgments xxi Timeline xxiii About the Website xxvii Maps xxviii

1 introduCtion and issues in the  history of Greek art 1

An Alternative Mini-History of Greek Art 6 Some Questions to Consider for this Book 10 The Plan of this Book 15 A Few Notes About Using this Book 16 Textbox: Stylistic Analysis and Sir John Beazley 17 References 18 Further Reading 18

2 the early and Middle Bronze aGes c. 3100–1600 bce 19

Timeline 20 Chronology, Regions, Periods, and Pottery Analysis 21 Early Cycladic and Minoan Periods, c. 3100–2000 bce 24 Early to Middle Helladic (c. 3100–1675 bce) 27 Protopalatial and Neopalatial Crete 32 The Cyclades 39 Middle Helladic to the Late Helladic I Shaft Graves 43 Textbox: The Eruption of Thera and Debates over Absolute Chronology 46 References 47 Further Reading 47

3 the late Bronze aGe ii–iii (c. 1600–1075 bce) 48

Timeline 49 Late Minoan (LM II to LM III) 51

Contents

Contents ix

Late Helladic Architecture 52 Late Helladic Pottery and Terracottas 59 Textbox: The Trojan War 66 References 67 Further Reading 67

4 the suB-MyCenaean, ProtoGeoMetriC, and GeoMetriC Periods (c. 1075–700 bce) 68

Timeline 69 Pottery 71 Sculpture 84 Architecture 89 Textbox: What is in a Name? 95 References 96 Further Reading 96

5 Contexts i: CiviC, doMestiC, and funerary 97

Timeline 98 The City and Its Spaces 99 The Agora 105 Houses and Domestic Spaces 111 Textiles 115 The Symposion 118 Graves 122 Textbox: Agency 127 References 128 Further Reading 129

6 the seventh Century (c. 725/700–625/600 bce) 130

Timeline 131

Greek Pottery Painting and the Mediterranean 137 Metalwork and Terracotta 143 Architecture and its Decoration 145 Textbox: Network Theory 150 References 151 Further Reading 151

x Contents

7 Contexts ii: sanCtuaries and arChiteCture 152

Timeline 153 Sanctuaries 154 Temples and the Architectural Orders 161 A Mini-History of the Greek Temple 167 Other Buildings of the Sanctuary 170 Rituals and Offerings 172 Textbox: Ritual Analysis and Theoria 177 References 177 Further Reading 178

8 the sixth Century (c. 625/600–480 bce) 179

Timeline 180 Architecture and Architectural Sculpture 181 Free-Standing Sculpture 190 Other Media 197 Painted Pottery 199 Textbox: Color in Greek Sculpture 207 References 208 Further Reading 208

9 narrative 209

Timeline 210 Narrative and Artistic Style 212 Narrative Time and Space 214 Viewing Context 220 Art and Literature 222 Choice of Mood and Moment 225 Symbolic and Universal Aspects of Narrative 229 Textbox: Interpretation and Information Theory 233 References 234 Further Reading 234

10 the fifth Century (c. 480–400 bce) 235

Timeline 236 Architecture, Architectural Sculpture, and Relief 244 The Acropolis at Athens 246 Late Fifth-Century Sculpture 253

Contents xi

Painting 255 Textbox: The Parthenon Marbles and Cultural Patrimony 262 References 263 Further Reading 264

11 the ProduCtion of Greek art and its Markets 265

Timeline 266 Production: Architecture 267 Production: Architectural Sculpture 269 Production: Sculpture 271 Production: Pottery 273 Wares, Markets, and Distribution 276 Artists and Workshops 279 Textbox: The Value of Greek Art 284 References 284 Further Reading 285

12 the fourth Century to c. 330 bce 286

Timeline 287 Architecture 288 Sculpture 293 Art and Individuals 299 Pottery 305 Mosaic and Fresco 310 Textbox: The Copy Hypothesis 317 References 318 Further Reading 318

13 identity 319

Timeline 320 Gender 322 Women’s Lives 324 Women in Public 329 Men and Youths: Gender and Sexuality 331 Interaction: Class, Civic, and Ethnic Identity 335 Textbox: Money Purses, Sex, and Identity 339 References 340 Further Reading 340

xii Contents

14 the hellenistiC Period c. 330–30 bce 341

Timeline 342 Characteristics of the Hellenistic Period 347 Cities and Architecture 348 Sculptural Styles and Dating 355 Theatricism and Narrative 358 Representations and Portrayal 363 Painting 369 The Private and Personal Realm 374 Textbox: The Riace Warriors as Hellenistic Sculpture 378 References 379 Further Reading 379

15 ePiloGue 380 Glossary 388 Index 395

xiii

IllustratIons

1.1 North frieze of the Parthenon, 442–438 bce 1.2 Attic white-ground calyx krater attributed to the Phiale Painter, c. 440 bce 1.3 Late Geometric I “Hera”-type terracotta figure from Olympia, c. 750–725 bce 1.4 Terracotta woman from a grave at Kamiros cemetery, Rhodes, c. 600–540 bce 1.5 Terracotta figures from girl’s tomb in Kerameikos cemetery, Athens, 380–370 bce 1.6 Terracotta group of women (Demeter and Persephone?), 2nd cent. bce 1.7 God (Zeus?) from Cape Artemision, c. 460 bce 1.8 God (Zeus?) from Cape Artemision, c. 460 bce, viewed from front 1.9 View of the Acropolis from the Pynx (west) 1.10a Attic pottery from Well J2:4 in the Agora, Athens, c. 525–490 bce 1.10b Attic pottery from Well J2:4 in the Agora, Athens, c. 525–490 bce

2.1 Vasiliki Ware jug with spout, EM IIB 2.2 Folded-Arm Figures (FAF) from Chalandriani cemetery, Syros, EC II/Keros-Syros Group 2.3 “Frying pan” from Chalandriani cemetery, Syros, EC IIB/Keros-Syros Group 2.4 Plan of Myrtos, Crete, EM II 2.5 Sauceboats and bowls from Lerna, EH II 2.6 House of the Tiles, Lerna, EH IIB 2.7 Seals from the House of the Tiles at Lerna, EH IIB 2.8 Minyan ware drinking vessels, MH 2.9 Kamares Ware jug from Phaistos, MM IIB 2.10 Plan of Gournia, Crete, LM I 2.11 Plan of the palace at Knossos, LM I 2.12 View of west side of courtyard at the palace of Minos at Knossos: staircase and throne

room (reconstructed) 2.13 “Snake goddess” from Knossos, MM III to LM IA 2.14 Kouros from Palaikastro, LM IB 2.15 Harvester vase, LM IB 2.16 Seal ring from Isopata, LM I 2.17 Marine Style pilgrim’s flask from Palaikastro with octopus, LM IB 2.18 Jug from Thera, LC IA 2.19 Landscape and bird fresco from House Delta 2, Thera, LC IA 2.20 Miniature frescoes from Room 5, West House, Akrotiri, LC IA 2.21 Vapheio cup, LM IB 2.22 Dagger from Shaft Grave at Mycenae, LH I 2.23 Wooden box with gold relief from Shaft Grave V, Circle A at Mycenae, LH I

3.1 Palace Style amphora with octopus from Knossos, LM II 3.2 Painted sarcophagus from Hagia Triada, LM IIIA 3.3 Palace of Nestor at Pylos: view of megaron, LH IIIB 3.4 Reconstruction of the megaron interior at Pylos by Piet de Jong, LH IIIB 3.5 Palace of Nestor at Pylos: plan, LH IIIB 3.6 View of walls of Mycenae with Lion Gate, LH IIIB 3.7 “Treasury of Atreus,” Mycenae, LH IIIB

xiv IllustratIons

3.8 Interior of “Treasury of Atreus,” Mycenae, LH IIIB 3.9 Fresco from Cult Center at Mycenae, LH IIIB 3.10 Chamber tomb burial from Agora with three bodies, LH IIIA 3.11 Pottery from chamber tomb burial in the Agora, LH IIIA 3.12 Goblet with floral decoration from Kalymnos, LH IIIB 3.13 Krater with chariot procession from Tomb 70, Enkomi, Cyprus, LH IIIA2 3.14 Terracotta figures (psi, tau, and phi types), LH IIIB 3.15 Stirrup jar with octopus, LH IIIC 3.16 Warrior Vase from Mycenae, LH IIIC

4.1 Sub-Mycenaean Attic amphoriskos from the Kerameikos, c. 1100–1050 bce 4.2 Protogeometric Attic cinerary amphora from the Kerameikos, c. 1000–900 bce 4.3 Early Geometric Attic burial amphora with bent iron sword from Agora (D16:4), c. 900 bce 4.4 Middle Geometric tomb of the Rich Lady in the Agora in Athens (Tomb H16:6), c. 850 bce 4.5 Grave goods from tomb of the Rich Lady, c. 850 bce 4.6 Jewelry from the tomb of the Rich Lady, c. 850 bce 4.7 Late Geometric IA Attic amphora from the Dipylon cemetery (Kerameikos) attributed

to the Dipylon Master, c. 760–750 bce 4.8 Detail of prothesis scene in Figure 4.7 4.9 Late Geometric IB Attic krater from Dipylon cemetery (Kerameikos), c. 750–735 bce 4.10 Late Geometric II Attic skyphos from the Kerameikos, c. 735–720 bce 4.11 Late Geometric Euboean lidded krater from Cyprus, c. 750–740 bce 4.12 Late Geometric IB Argive krater fragment from Argos, c. 750–740 bce 4.13 Terracotta centaur from Lefkandi, end 10th cent. bce 4.14 Ivory figure from Dipylon grave, 750–725 bce 4.15 Bronze votive horses from Olympia, 8th cent. bce 4.16 Tripod reconstruction from Olympia 4.17 Bronze warrior from a tripod handle at Olympia, 8th cent. bce 4.18 Cretan bronze tripod leg from Olympia, end 8th cent. bce 4.19 Bronze group of man and centaur, mid-8th cent. bce 4.20 Reconstruction of the House at Lefkandi, 1000–950 bce 4.21 Plan of the town of Zagora, Andros, 8th cent. bce 4.22 Plan of houses in Area H of Zagora, Andros 4.23 Late Geometric Attic spouted bowl or louterion, possibly from Thebes, c. 730–720 bce

5.1 Reconstructed view of ancient Athens with view of Agora and Acropolis 5.2 Plan of Athens with ancient structures superimposed on modern city streets 5.3 Plan of Poseidonia/Paestum, founded c. 600 bce 5.4 Plan of Olynthos, c. 430–348 bce 5.5 Reconstructed view of Priene, later 4th–3rd cent. bce 5.6 View of the Agora in Athens today 5.7 Reconstructed plan of Agora of Athens, c. 400 bce 5.8 Reconstructed plan of Agora of Athens, c. 150 ce 5.9 Tyrannicides (Aristogeiton, left; Harmodios, right) of Kritios and Nesiotes, Roman

marble copy of Greek bronze original of 477/6 bce 5.10 Relief commemorating victory of Leontis tribe, early 4th. cent. bce 5.11 Attic black-figure Panathenaic amphora attributed to Kleophrades Painter, c. 490 bce 5.12 Plan of House A vii 4 at Olynthos, with location of excavated object types 5.13 Reconstruction drawing of House A vii 4 at Olynthos 5.14 Plan of houses, Block 1, Silen’s Quarter, Thasos (Phase 4) 5.15 Reconstruction drawing of houses, Block 1, Silen’s Quarter, Thasos

IllustratIons xv

5.16 Household pottery found in the Agora at Athens, 6th–4th cent. bce 5.17 Household finds from Priene, 2nd–1st cent. bce 5.18 Textile from Tomb II at Vergina, c. 336–311 bce 5.19 Attic red-figure skyphos attributed to the Penelope Painter, c. 450–440 bce 5.20 Reconstruction of dining room with symposiasts in the South Stoa of the Agora at Athens 5.21 Early Corinthian column krater, c. 600–590 bce 5.22 Diagram of vase types 5.23 Middle Corinthian skyphos, c. 585–570 bce 5.24 Kouros from Anavyssos, perhaps from tomb of Kroisos, c. 530 bce 5.25 Late Geometric Tomb XI with part of Tomb XXII, Agora, Athens, end 8th cent. or begin-

ning 7th cent. bce 5.26 Attic white-ground lekythoi with funerary scenes 5.27 Stelai of Koroibos–Kleidemides family in the Kerameikos, Athens, reconstruction of 4th

cent. bce tomb plot 5.28 Stele of Hegeso, c. 400 bce

6.1 Ivory group of hero with lion, c. 700–650 bce 6.2 Neo-Assyrian relief from the palace at Khorsabad, c. 720 bce 6.3 Kore of Nikandre from Delos, c. 650–625 bce 6.4 Kouros from Sounion, c. 590 bce 6.5 Egyptian male statue, Tjayasetimu, from Giza, c. 664–610 bce 6.6 Egyptian bronze statue of Mut, dedicated at Samos, 7th cent. bce 6.7 Phoenician ivory plaque from Nimrud, 9th–8th cent. bce 6.8 Cypro-Phoenician silver gilt bowl with various scenes, c. 725–675 bce 6.9 Protocorinthian aryballos attributed to the Evelyn Painter, c. 720–700 bce; Proto-

corinthian alabastron from Kamiros, 660–650 bce 6.10 Protocorinthian aryballos from tomb in Taras/Taranto, c. 680–650 bce 6.11 Protocorinthian olpe attributed to the Chigi Painter, c. 650–640 bce 6.12 Sicilian stamnos from Selinunte, made in Megara Hyblaea, c. 660–650 bce 6.13 Wild Goat-style oinochoe from Rhodes, 625–600 bce 6.14 Chian “Aphrodite Bowl” from Naukratis, 620–600 bce 6.15 Protoattic amphora from Eleusis, c. 670–650 bce 6.16 Griffin protome probably from Rhodes, 7th cent. bce 6.17 Gold plaques with Mistress of Animals from Kamiros, Rhodes, c. 660–620 bce 6.18 Cycladic relief pithos from Mykonos, c. 675–650 bce 6.19 Plan of the sanctuary of Hera at Samos and Temple 1b, c. 700 bce 6.20 Plan of the sanctuary of Hera at Samos and Temple 2, c. 650 bce 6.21 Reconstruction of the stoa and corner of the Hera Temple 2 at Samos, c. 650–625 bce 6.22 Reconstruction of the superstructure of the Temple of Apollo at Thermon, c. 630 bce 6.23 Metope from the Temple of Apollo at Thermon, c. 630 bce 6.24 Lintel from the Temple at Prinias, c. 620–600 bce

7.1 View of the sanctuary at Delphi 7.2 Plan of the sanctuary at Delphi 7.3 Reconstruction drawing of the sanctuary at Olympia 7.4 Plan of the Acropolis and areas to north and east, Athens 7.5 Exterior of the Temple of Concord at Akragas/Agrigento, c. 440–430 bce 7.6 The Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders and their components 7.7 Temples of Hera at Poseidonia/Paestum 7.8 Erechtheion, Acropolis, Athens, c. 431–405 bce 7.9 Section of the frieze from the Erechtheion, c. 410–405 bce

xvi IllustratIons

7.10 Corinthian capital and entablature from the thymele of the Asklepieion at Epidauros, mid-4th cent. bce

7.11 General plan of the Greek temple and its components 7.12 Reconstruction of the side and interior of the Temple of Zeus, Olympia 7.13 Interior of the Temple of Concord at Akragas/Agrigento, c. 440–430 bce 7.14 Athenian Treasury at Delphi (reconstructed), c. 490 bce 7.15 Perspective reconstruction of the Siphnian Treasury and Sacred Way at Delphi 7.16 Boeotian black-figure lekane with sacrificial procession to Athena, c. 550 bce 7.17 Attic red-figure volute krater attributed to the Kleophon Painter, c. 440–430 bce 7.18 Kore dedicated by Euthydikos, from Acropolis, Athens, c. 490–480 bce 7.19 Nude male (Apollo?) dedicated by Mantiklos, early 7th cent. bce 7.20 Objects from votive deposit in the Agora (H 17:4), c. 700–625 bce

8.1 East pediment and frieze from the Siphnian Treasury at Delphi, c. 530–525 bce 8.2 West frieze from the Siphnian Treasury at Delphi, c. 530–525 bce 8.3 Pediment from Temple of Artemis at Korfu, c. 580 bce 8.4 Running Medusa and Pegasos from Temple of Athena, Syracuse/Siracusa, c. 575–550 bce 8.5 Facade of Selinus/Selinunte, Temple C, c. 550–530 bce 8.6 Metopes of Temple C at Selinus/Selinunte, c. 550–530 bce 8.7 Metope from Athenian Treasury at Delphi, c. 490–485 bce 8.8 Ball player base from Themistoklean Wall, c. 510–500 bce 8.9 Kouroi dedicated to Kleobis and Biton at Delphi, c. 570 bce 8.10 Kouros from grave of Sombrotidas, the physician, son of Mandrokles, Megara Hyblaea,

Sicily, c. 560–550 bce 8.11 Kouros dedicated by Pytheas and Aeschrion to Ptoan Apollo, Boeotia, c. 500 bce 8.12 Kore dedicated by Cheramyes from Samos, 570–560 bce 8.13 Kore of Phrasikleia, c. 550–540 bce 8.14 Kore from Acropolis, Athens, c. 520–510 bce 8.15 Color reconstruction of Acropolis Kore 675, “Chiotissa” or Chian kore 8.16 Narrative scenes of bronze shield band from Olympia in Figure 8.17 8.17 Bronze shield band from Olympia, mid-6th cent. bce 8.18 Chryselephantine statue of Apollo from Delphi, c. 550 bce 8.19 Caryatid mirror from Cape Sounion, c. 510 bce 8.20 Rhodian terracotta scent bottles, c. 600–550 bce 8.21 Painted panel from Pitsa, Corinthia, c. 540–530 bce 8.22 Lakonian kylix attributed to the Hunt Painter, c. 555 bce 8.23 Attic black-figure volute krater signed by Kleitias and Ergotimos (François Vase), c. 570 bce 8.24 Attic black-figure amphora signed by Exekias, c. 540 bce 8.25 Attic bilingual amphora (red-figure side) by the Andokides Painter, c. 525–520 bce 8.26 Attic red-figure calyx krater attributed to Euphronios, c. 520–510 bce

9.1 North frieze from the Siphnian Treasury at Delphi, c. 530–525 bce 9.2 Middle Geometric II Attic skyphos from Eleusis, c. 770 bce 9.3 Attic red-figure pelike near the Pronomos Painter, end 5th cent. bce 9.4 Frieze from the Great Altar of Zeus at Pergamon, c. 180–150 bce 9.5 Attic black-figure amphora attributed to Exekias, c. 540–535 bce 9.6 Attic black-figure cup, c. 550 bce 9.7 Attic red-figure hydria attributed to the Kleophrades Painter, c. 480 bce 9.8 Attic red-figure kylix attributed to the Kodros Painter, c. 440–430 bce 9.9 Attic red-figure skyphos attributed to the Penelope Painter, c. 450–440 bce

IllustratIons xvii

9.10 Attic red-figure kylix attributed to the Briseis Painter, c. 480 bce 9.11 Lucanian red-figure pelike attributed to the Choephoroi Painter, c. 350 bce 9.12 Cabiran black-figure skyphos, late 5th cent. bce 9.13 Attic red-figure chous attributed to the Group of Berlin 2415, c. 460 bce 9.14 East pediment of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, c. 470–457 bce 9.15 Attic black-figure amphora from the heroön at Poseidonia/Paestum, attributed to the

Chiusi Painter, c. 510 bce 9.16 Attic black-figure column krater, mid-6th cent. bce 9.17 Metope of Naiskos Tomb from Via Umberto, Taras/Taranto, 300–250 bce 9.18 Attic red-figure volute krater attributed to the Niobid Painter, c. 460 bce

10.1 “Kritios Boy,” after 480 bce 10.2 West pediment from Temple of Aphaia at Aegina, after 480 bce 10.3 Color reconstruction by Vinzenz Brinkmann of archer (W11), warrior (W9), and Athena

(W1) from west pediment of the Temple of Aphaia at Aigina 10.4 Fallen warrior (E11) from east pediment of the Temple of Aphaia at Aigina, after 480 bce 10.5 Riace Warriors A and B, c. 460–450 bce 10.6 Argive caryatid mirror, mid-5th cent. bce 10.7 Doryphoros of Polykleitos, Hellenistic marble copy of Greek bronze original of

c. 450–440 bce 10.8 Nike by Paionios, c. 420 bce 10.9 Metope 10 from the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, c. 470–457 bce 10.10 Parthenon, Athens, 447–432 bce, view from the northwest 10.11 Parthenon, Athens, plan with subjects of sculptural program 10.12 Parthenon, Athens, view of west end 10.13 Parthenon, Athens, drawing of exaggerated architectural refinements 10.14 South metope from Parthenon, 447–442 bce 10.15 East frieze of the Parthenon, 442–438 bce 10.16a East pediment of the Parthenon, 437–432 bce 10.16b East pediment of the Parthenon, 437–432 bce 10.17 Parthenon, Athens, view of southeast corner with reproduction of Dionysos figure 10.18 Nike figure from the parapet of the Temple of Athena Nike, c. 420–410 bce 10.19 Grave stele of Ampharete from Kerameikos, 430–420 bce 10.20 Painted wall from the Tomb of the Diver, Poseidonia/Paestum, c. 470 bce 10.21 Attic white-ground kylix attributed to the Sotades Painter, c. 460–450 bce 10.22 Attic red-figure calyx krater attributed to the Niobid Painter, c. 460–450 bce 10.23 Attic white-ground lekythos attributed to the Achilles Painter, c. 440 bce 10.24 Attic red-figure epinetron attributed to the Eretria Painter, c. 425–420 bce 10.25 Attic white-ground lekythos attributed to the Reed Painter, c. 420–400 bce 10.26 Attic red-figure calyx krater signed by Euphronios from Cerveteri, c. 520–510 bce

11.1 West pediment from the Temple of Asklepios at Epidauros, c. 370 bce 11.2 Nike acroterion from west pediment from the Temple of Asklepios at Epidauros, c. 370 bce 11.3 Figures from the frieze of the Erechtheion on the Acropolis at Athens, c. 410–405 bce 11.4 Fragment of a red-figure test piece cut from a krater, attributed to the Methyse Painter,

c. 460 bce 11.5 Attic red-figure hydria attributed to Group of Polygnotos, c. 450–440 bce 11.6 Black-glaze ware from the Agora, 5th cent bce 11.7 Gold phiale dedicated by the Kypselids, 625–600 bce 11.8 Attic black-figure Nikosthenic amphora signed by Nikosthenes, c. 540–510 bce

xviii IllustratIons

11.9 West Slope ware kantharoi, c. 275–250 bce 11.10 Mold-made “Megarian” bowl, c. 225–175 bce 11.11 Unfinished Neoattic marble krater (“Finley Krater”), mid-1st cent. bce 11.12 Gold pendants from Tekke Tomb 2, Knossos, 9th cent. bce 11.13 Caeretan hydria attributed to the Eagle Painter, c. 530 bce 11.14 Reconstruction of the sculptural program at Sperlonga, 1st cent. bce 11.15 Hagesandros, Athenodoros, and Polydoros, Blinding of Polyphemos from Sperlonga,

1st cent. bce

12.1 Reconstruction of the sanctuary of Asklepios at Epidauros facing to the north, 4th cent. and later bce

12.2 Reconstruction of the thymele (tholos) at Epidauros, designed by Polykleitos the Younger, c. 360–330 bce

12.3 Theater at Epidauros, designed by Polykleitos the Younger, c. 330 bce 12.4 Reconstruction of the Mausoleion at Halikarnassos, c. 350 bce 12.5 Choreagic Monument of Lysikrates, Athens, c. 334 bce 12.6 Column drum from Temple of Artemis at Ephesos, c. 320 bce 12.7 “Antikythera Youth,” c. 350–330 bce 12.8 Agias from the Daochos Monument at Delphi, 337/6–333/2 bce 12.9 Amazonomachy frieze from the Mausoleion at Halikarnassos, 360–350 bce 12.10a Head of Telephos from the west pediment of the Temple of Athena at Tegea, c. 350–340 bce 12.10b Head of a warrior from the west pediment of the Temple of Athena at Tegea, c. 350–340 bce 12.11 Aphrodite of Knidos of Praxiteles, Roman copy or adaptation of Greek original of c. 350 bce 12.12 Monument of Dexileos from Kerameikos, Athens, 394/3 bce 12.13 Reconstruction of Dexileos Monument in situ 12.14 Bronze hinged mirror cover, c. 330 bce 12.15 Derveni krater, c. 375–350 bce 12.16 Scepter, ring, and necklace tomb of priestess (?) in Taras/Taranto, c. 350–320 bce 12.17 Attic red-figure Kerch-style pelike attributed to the Wedding Procession Painter, c. 360 bce 12.18 Apulian red-figure calyx krater fragment attributed to the Black Fury Painter, c. 400–380 bce 12.19 Apulian red-figure loutrophoros attributed to the Metope Painter, c. 350–325 bce 12.20 Apulian Gnathian-ware lekythos from Tomb 2, Corso Italia, Taras/Taranto, c. 350–325 bce 12.21 Paestan red-figure krater attributed to Asteas, 350–340 bce 12.22 Mosaic floor from House A vi 3 at Olynthos, early 4th cent. bce 12.23 Reconstruction of the facade of Tomb II at Vergina, c. 335–315 bce 12.24 Facade and fresco from Tomb II (of Philip?) at Vergina, c. 335–315 bce 12.25a Fresco from the “Tomb of Persephone” at Vergina, c. 336–317 bce: Abduction of

Persephone by Hades 12.25b Fresco from the “Tomb of Persephone” at Vergina, c. 336–317 bce: Demeter 12.26 Praxitelean Hermes and infant Dionysos, Hellenistic copy of 4th-cent. bce original?

13.1 Attic red-figure kylix attributed to the Gales Painter or the Thorvaldsen Group, c. 520 bce 13.2 Tomb relief of Mnesistrate, mid-4th. cent. bce 13.3 Attic red-figure chous, c. 430–420 bce 13.4 Attic red-figure pyxis attributed to the Marlay Painter, c. 440–430 bce 13.5 Early Geometric grave goods from a burial (D16:2, “Boots Tomb”) in the Agora, Athens,

c. 900 bce 13.6 Attic red-figure lekythos attributed to the Brygos Painter, c. 480–470 bce 13.7 Attic red-figure nuptial lebes attributed to the Washing Painter, c. 430–420 bce 13.8 Statue of priestess Aristonoë, from Temple of Themis/Nemesis at Rhamnous (Attica),

3rd cent. bce

IllustratIons xix

13.9 Grave stele of Phila, daughter of Apollas, from Smyrna/Izmir, 2nd cent. bce 13.10 Lakonian nude caryatid mirror, 560–540 bce 13.11 Attic red-figure kylix attributed to the Foundry Painter, c. 490–480 bce 13.12 Attic red-figure kylix attributed to the Euaion Painter, c. 450–440 bce 13.13 Attic red-figure kylix signed by Douris, c. 480 bce 13.14 Campanian red-figure hydria attributed to the Manchester Painter, c. 350–330 bce 13.15 Silver stater from Metapontum/Metaponto, c. 540–510 bce 13.16 Grave goods from Tomb 106, Pantanello Cemetery at Metapontum/Metaponto,

c. 425–385 bce 13.17 Reconstruction drawing of “Lucanian” bronze belt from Tomb 106, Pantanello Cemetery

at Metapontum/Metaponto, c. 425–385 bce 13.18 Attic red-figure epinetron attributed to the Painter of Berlin 2624, c. 450 bce

14.1 Alexander Sarcophagus from Sidon, c. 325–311 bce 14.2 Alexander Mosaic from the House of the Faun, Pompeii, late 2nd–early 1st cent. bce 14.3 Plan of early Ptolemaic Alexandria, Egypt, 3rd cent. bce 14.4 Plan of the acropolis at Pergamon, 3rd cent. bce and later 14.5 Model of Pergamon: view of western side of acropolis with Great Altar of Zeus to the right 14.6 Great Altar of Zeus at Pergamon, c. 180–150 bce, post-restoration 2004 14.7 Asklepieion at Kos, c. 160 bce 14.8 Temple of Apollo at Didyma, begun c. 300 bce. Exterior with stairs leading to pronaos 14.9 Temple of Apollo at Didyma, begun c. 300 bce. Plan 14.10 Temple of Apollo at Didyma, begun c. 300 bce. Interior 14.11 Odysseus from Antikythera shipwreck, first quarter of 1st cent. bce 14.12 Eros (once called Agon) from Mahdia shipwreck, late 2nd–early 1st cent. bce 14.13 “Dancing Dwarf ” from Mahdia shipwreck, late 2nd–early 1st cent. bce 14.14 Nike of Samothrace, later 3rd–early 2nd cent. bce 14.15 Bronze figure of Tyche of Antioch, 1st–2nd cent. ce Roman copy in bronze after the

original by Eutychides, shortly after 300 bce 14.16 Aphrodite with slipper group from Delos, c. 100 bce 14.17 Aphrodite of Melos, c. 150–100 bce 14.18 Reconstruction of cult statues by Damophon of Messene from the sanctuary of Despoina

at Lykosoura, c. 200–190 bce 14.19 Artemis and Demeter from cult statues at Lykosoura, c. 200–190 bce, by Damophon

of Messene 14.20 Tripod base fragment from Agora, Athens, c. 100 bce 14.21 Getty athlete (neoclassical), 3rd cent. bce 14.22 Terme boxer, 2nd–early 1st cent. bce 14.23 “Hellenistic Ruler,” …

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