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mona lisa and good shepherd 

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We did not study these sculptures or periods, but some of the info from Greece and Rome should seem familiar.

Make the heading MLA style, as usual.

Dr. Cecile de Rocher

HUMN 1201

Make your own title.

April 16, 2020

One title is italicized, and one isn’t.

My Favorite Old Guys

The two pieces that I’ve chosen to discuss are Praxiteles’s Hermes Carrying the Infant Dionysus (figure 3.19) and Gian Lorenzo Bernini’s Aeneas, Anchises, and Ascanius (figure 4.1) in Cunningham, Reich, and Fincher-Rathus’s Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities. These are both freestanding marble sculptures of characters from Greek and Roman mythology. Hermes was carved in ancient Greece, 330-270 BCE, while the sculpture of Aeneas comes from 1618, in Italy’s Baroque period.

Introduce the two images at the start.

We learned in class that the Greeks changed their aesthetics over time, so that the rigid, forward stance of the kouroi disappeared and was replaced by a new posture known as contrapposto. The highly stylized gave way to the representational, with a new interest in the human anatomy. Praxiteles’s Hermes shows an even newer approach as the messenger god stands with weight on one leg, pelvis slightly tilted, and arm raised in what the textbook describes as an “S curve” (113) The textbook caption notes that although Hermes’s arm is broken off, the god was probably holding a bunch of grapes that his baby brother Dionysus wants (113). We also learned in the PowerPoint that ancient Greek and Roman statues were painted. Because the colors are long gone, we assume that what remains is what the original effect was–white marble. To add color and replace the broken limbs is to see a different piece of art altogether. Hermes’s facial expression shows amusement and affection. The textbook authors explain that this artwork comes from the Late Classical period, which “emphasized emotion” and moved from representational, idealized anatomy to “long, lean proportions” (113). I like that even in its diminished state, this sculpture shows a knowledge and reverence for the human figure and psyche.

Tell about the piece.

Use any info from PowerPoint or lecture notes that you need. Just mention it briefly.

Cite textbook whenever you need it.

Why do you like it?

Sixteen centuries after Praxiteles came Bernini, who like the Greeks of the Late Classical period, showed people in action. In this sculpture, Bernini depicts Aeneas escaping with his aged father Anchises and his son Ascanius (who is not shown in this detail) from the final chaos of Troy. The Trojan refugee trio are on their way to found Rome, as depicted by Vergil in the Roman epic the Aeneid, which we learned about in the PowerPoint. Bernini knew the work of Praxiteles, as did anyone of the Baroque period who revered the ancient Greeks. Aeneas shows the steady determination of the Trojan prince, who is a semi divine-epic hero born to the goddess Venus and the mortal man Anchises. But Venus’s lover is now aged and lame, carried by the son that he and she made together decades previous. Bernini captures the sagging skin and shrunken muscles of the old man, and also depicts Aeneas as young and strong. The textbook explains that Aeneas is “the embodiment of Roman virtues,” such as gravity, piety, dignity, and courage (123). One interesting distinction from Praxiteles’s work is that Bernini’s statue was never painted. This sculpture of Anchises reminds me of my own father, who now at age 76 sports a sagging brow and sunken cheeks, also.

You can spend more time than I do on why you like the pieces. Make two sentences (four lines of text) the maximum per paragraph.

The use of stone to show people in motion is a beautiful irony, and the masterful Bernini was inspired by Greeks such as Praxiteles, who pre-dates him by 1600 years. For reasons that I have probably not examined, I prefer the representational to the stylistic. This makes little sense as I am a product of the twentieth century, when the representational was often rejected in favor of experimental art. I may have been born too late. (essay is 575 words)

Work Cited

Cunningham, Lawrence S. et al. Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities. 9th edition. Vol 1. Cengage, 2018.

Ha! I made a mistake on the handout! Either of these models will be fine for the bibliography.

Ima Student

Dr. Cecile de Rocher

HUMN 1201

April 16, 2021

My Favorite Old Guys

The two pieces that I’ve chosen to discuss are Praxiteles’s Hermes Carrying the Infant Dionysus (figure 3.19) and Gian Lorenzo Bernini’s Aeneas, Anchises, and Ascanius (figure 4.1) in Cunningham, Reich, and Fincher-Rathus’s Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities. These are both freestanding marble sculptures of characters from Greek and Roman mythology. Hermes was carved in ancient Greece, 330-270 BCE, while the sculpture of Aeneas comes from 1618, in Italy’s Baroque period.

We learned in class that the Greeks changed their aesthetics over time, so that the rigid, forward stance of the kouroi disappeared and was replaced by a new posture known as contraposto. The highly stylized gave way to the representational, with a new interest in the human anatomy. Praxiteles’s Hermes shows an even newer approach as the messenger god stands with weight on one leg, pelvis slightly tilted, and arm raised in what the textbook describes as an “S curve” (113) The textbook caption notes that although Hermes’s arm is broken off, the god was probably holding a bunch of grapes that his baby brother Dionysus wants (113). We also learned in the PowerPoint that ancient Greek and Roman statues were painted. Because the colors are long gone, we assume that what remains is what the original effect was–white marble. To add color and replace the broken limbs is to see a different piece of art altogether. Hermes’s facial expression shows amusement and affection. The textbook authors explain that this artwork comes from the Late Classical period, which “emphasized emotion” and moved from representational, idealized anatomy to “long, lean proportions” (113). I like that even in its diminished state, this sculpture shows a knowledge and reverence for the human figure and psyche.

Sixteen centuries after Praxiteles came Bernini, who like the Greeks of the Late Classical period, showed people in action. In this sculpture, Bernini depicts Aeneas escaping with his aged father Anchises and his son Ascanius (who is not shown in this detail) from the final chaos of Troy. The Trojan refugee trio are on their way to found Rome, as depicted by Vergil in the Roman epic the Aeneid, which we learned about in the PowerPoint. Bernini knew the work of Praxiteles, as did anyone of the Baroque period who revered the ancient Greeks. Aeneas shows the steady determination of the Trojan prince, who is a semi-divine epic hero born to the goddess Venus and the mortal man Anchises. But Venus’s lover is now aged and lame, carried by the son that he and she made together decades previous. Bernini captures the sagging skin and shrunken muscles of the old man, and also depicts Aeneas as young and strong. The textbook explains that Aeneas is “the embodiment of Roman virtues,” such as gravity, piety, dignity, and courage (123). One interesting distinction from Praxiteles’s work is that Bernini’s statue was never painted. This sculpture of Anchises reminds me of my own father, who now at age 77 sports a sagging brow and sunken cheeks, also.

The use of stone to show people in motion is a beautiful irony, and the masterful Bernini was inspired by Greeks such as Praxiteles, who pre-dates him by 1600 years. For reasons that I have probably not examined, I prefer the representational to the stylistic. This makes little sense as I am a product of the twentieth century, when the representational was often rejected in favor of experimental art. I may have been born too late. (575 words)

Work Cited

Cunningham, Lawrence S. et al. Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities. 9th edition. Vol 1. Cengage, 2018.

HUMN 1201

Dr. Cecile de Rocher

Critical Essay: Image Analysis

Due by 11:59pm on 11/8 in GeorgiaVIEW

Principle

For this assignment, you will write an essay explaining why you like two images. Choose two pieces of art from the list on this sheet. Examine them carefully, and write an essay. Why do you like them? Please focus your comments on the art itself, not on your own self. Use only the lecture materials (PowerPoints, handouts, scripts, films, classroom notes) and the textbook as your sources.

Technique

For the introductory paragraph, explain which images you will discuss, who made them, from what period they come, and what figure numbers they have. Sum up in a sentence what makes you like this artwork. You may use the pronouns “I” and “me,” but not “you.”

Refer to the artist initially by full name, then only by last name (except Italian masters, such as Leonardo). Use italics and capitalization for titles, which you may abbreviate afterwards. (Most ancient and medieval pieces are untitled.)

For the body, discuss 2-3 aspects of the pieces that prompt a positive response. Do not simply explain what the piece depicts. Instead, analyze elements of the art that make it appealing to you. If you have trouble thinking of anything to say, ask me for help. Hint: Talk about the art. Don’t discuss yourself too much or overuse the first person (“I” and “me”).

Discuss art in present tense: “Mary holds the infant Jesus on her lap.” If you refer to the Judeo-Christian-Islamic deity, capitalize the “G” in “God.” Use at least four (4) vocabulary terms in the essay, and use boldface for these words to help me spot them.

Do use the textbook and make an MLA-style bibliography (Works Cited). You may quote, paraphrase, or summarize, but furnish the page number. In an essay this short, please do not use block quotes. For the conclusion, make some observations about the art or about your reaction to it.

Do not use other sources (including Internet). I will deduct points for any material that comes from a non-class source, and I will report plagiarism to the director of Student Conduct.

Format

Write 500-750 words, double spaced, in twelve-point Times New Roman font. Use the same format (MLA) as usual. Give the essay a good title, but don’t underline it, and don’t put it in quotes.

Evaluation

Have aesthetics in mind and analyze the art, but do not express at length your personal opinions or feelings. Your reaction to the art must come from the piece itself, and I will evaluate your essay on how well you explain. Use the vocabulary learned in class. Observe the conventions of essay composition: organization, development, sentence structure, spelling, punctuation. Proofread carefully for errors. You may ask me or the Writing Lab faculty any questions about what you’ve written, but do so before the due date.

1.6 Hall of the Bulls1.8 Venus of Willendorf1.32 Statue of Khafre2.12 New York (Attic) Kouros2.13 Kroisos (Anavysos)2.14 Peplos Kore2.16 Kritios Boy2.22 Temple of Hera3.3 Parthenon3.4 Lapith and Centaur3.6 Equestrian Group3.11 Spear Bearer3.19 Hermes Carrying Infant Dionysus4.6 Capitoline Wolf4.19 Atrium, House of the Silver Wedding4.25 Augustus of Prima Porta4.27 Pont du Gard (Aqueduct)4.34 Pantheon5.2 Citadel at Mohenjo-Daro5.4 Siva as Nataraja6.9 Anchor6.10 Chi Rho6.11 Good Shepherd7.4 Christ as the Good Shepherd7.6 Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes7.10 Hagia Sophia, interior7.12 View of the Apse in San Vitale7.13 Emperor Justinian7.14 Empress Theodora7.17 Christ Pantocrator8.15 Mirador in the Alhambra8.20 Qur’an page8.21 Mihrab9.3 Folio verso9.16 Adam and Eve Reproached by the Lord9.17 St. Sernin, exterior9.19 St. Sernin, interior9.23 Reliquary of Charlemagne10.3 St. Denis10.6 Notre Dame de Paris10.7 Notre Dame de Paris10.9 Chartres10.12 Sainte Chapelle10.22 Scenes from the Life of St. Francis11.7 Madonna Enthroned, Cimabue11.8 Madonna Enthroned, Giotto11.10 Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints12.2 Giovanni Arnolofini12.4 Merode altarpiece12.5 Ghent altarpiece12.6 Biblia Latina12.16 David, Donatello12.17 David, Verocchio12.18 David, Michelangelo12.21 The Holy Trinity, Masaccio12.27 Primavera, Botticelli12.28 The Birth of Venus, Botticelli13.3 The Last Supper, Leonardo13.4 Mona Lisa13.6 Madonna of the Meadow13.8 (ABC) Philosophy (School of Athens)13.9 Pietà13.11 David, Michelangelo13.12 Moses, Michelangelo13.14 Creation of Adam13.15 The Last Judgement13.23 Venus of Urbino13.24 Entombment13.28 The Last Supper, Tintoretto13.34 Perseus Holding the Head of Medusa

Cunningham, Lawrence S. et al. Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities. 9th edition. Vol 1. Cengage, 2018.

HUMN 1201: Expressions of Culture

Dr. Cecile de Rocher

Vocabulary

This list includes most words that we will cover. Learn them as we discuss elements of art and literature. You will keep this sheet, so you may write definitions, notes, or additional terms on it.

abacusasceticaestheticsaisleancientanthropomorphismapsearcadearchbuttressByzantine, ByzantiumcapitalcaryatidcatharsiscircaclassicalcolumncolonnadeCompositecontrappostoCorinthiancuneiformDoricEnglish sonnetencausticentablatureepicflutingflying buttressfoot, poeticforumfresco, buonfresco seccofriezegenreGothichijabiambic pentametericonimamIonicItalian sonnetkeystonelay, BretonMadonnaMannerismmedievalmetopeMiddle AgesminaretmosaicmuezzinmythnaturalisticnaveNeolithicPaleolithicpantheonperspectivePetrarchan sonnetpietàQa’abaQur’anrelicreliefreliquaryRenaissancerepresentationalRomanesqueShakespearean sonnetSonnetspringerstylizedstylobatetesseraetransepttransubstantiationtriglyphtrompe l’oeilvaultvernacularvolutevoussoirziggurat

Body paragraph example: (Make clear which remarks are yours, and which are the authors’.)

Successful work (body paragraph):

I like that Piero della Francesca’s Jesus has triumphed over humiliation, pain, and death. The textbook authors explain that “Christ, transcendent in his expressionlessness” climbs from the grave unnoticed by the dozing guards (405). I find it ironic that the wounds in His hands and side seem barely more than scratches, unnoticed and apparently painless. The authors note that even the landscape is revived by the resurrection (404), and the PowerPoint presentation points out the contrasts in the scene: awake and asleep, earth and sky, sterile and blooming. This fresco, or painting made on wet plaster, is almost life sized, and we learned in class that it looks like the view out of an open door, an event that we see happening in real life instead of representing the distant past. The Corinthian columns are trompe l’oeil, an optical illusion that adds to that effect.

Less successful work:

I like the Capitoline Wolf sculpture. I have a dog who looks a lot like the wolf. Gertie and I do everything together. We go for walks and throw the tennis ball. She drinks from every stream or puddle she sees. She barks at every bunny, squirrel, and cat. I would be lost without her. If Gertie had puppies, she would guard them carefully. She’s a sweet dog most of the time, but if a car pulls up, Gertie rushes to the door barking. Nobody will mess with her! In summation, this sculpture is awesome.

Painting: Medieval to Renaissance

Medieval painting

Religious in subject matter

Influenced by Byzantine icon:

A saint or person of Trinity

Not much depth or perspective

Emphasis on face, eyes

Large golden halo (dinner plate)

Gold-> light of heaven

Elongated, floating figure

St. Francis by Berlinghieri

Made in 1235, after Francis’s death.

Shows miracles attributed to him.

Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets. (“Maestá”: Mary enthroned)

Shows Icon influence

Gold background and large halo

“Stacking” of angels->flat

Mary & Jesus seem old

BUT Renaissance hints:

Clothes show draping, outline of her body.

Throne suggests depth.

Painted 1280-1290.

Giotto, Madonna Enthroned.

Still using gold background, large halos

Moving toward Renaissance

First use of shading

(chiaroscuro) to show depth.

Angels show depth, not stacked

Seems three-dimensional

Jesus has adult head, baby hands.

Mary holds His knee (motherly, human)

Also a Maestá.

Painted c. 1310

Duccio, Virgin and Child Enthroned with Saints.

Shows perspective, depth (shading, throne)

Some saints individualized, not all identical

Similarities to Cimabue and to Giotto.

Maestá.

Painted 1308-1311

Arnolfini Wedding, by Jan van Eyck

Made 1434 (late medieval)

Flemish painting (miniaturistic)

Detailed & symbolic

Sacred event & wealthy man

Symbols: Dog, Shoes, Colors orange & green, Fruit, Window, Candle, Statue, Broom.

Wealth: Fabrics, furs, mirror, famous artist.

Artists paints himself & signs.

Renaissance Painting

Masaccio’s Holy Trinity, c. 1424 (Florence) was the first true example.

Masaccio shows mathematical perspective

(horizon, vanishing point).

Masaccio shows classical elements (columns, arches, vault).

Shows Father, Son, Holy Spirit (Dove).

Skeleton: underneath scene.

Three characteristics of Renaissance painting:

Triangular structure

Real-looking people

Open, uncrowded space

Madonna and Child with Angels, by Fra. Filippo Lippi, c. 1455

Compare this to Maestás from the 13th and 14th centuries.

Throne->only suggested

Angels->young, playful

Halos->nearly invisible

Madonna->youthful, pretty, unveiled

Baby Jesus->babyish, but still wise

“Sensuous beauty of this world” rather than only spiritual (Tansey and Kleiner 705).

His most famous student: Botticelli.

Botticelli’s Primavera, 1482. Large, mysterious painting.

Left, Mercury—The Three Graces—Cupid (above)—Venus (Also suggesting Mary)—Flora—Chloris abducted by Zephyr (Wind).

Wedding theme: Physical, earthly love joins spiritual, divine love in marriage. Notice bulging bellies on women (fertility).

Renaissance art commonly blends the pagan (Classical) with the Christian: Greek and Christian mythology together.

Botticelli’s Birth of Venus, 1484-1486

Artist decides to deviate from the representational. Venus’s body does not conform to human anatomy or to the laws of physics. Use of female frontal nudity recalls Classical age, as does pagan subject.

It’s “an allegory of the primal innocence and truth of the soul, before its birth into gross matter, its fall into a lesser being. [It is] blown upon by the winds of passion but is soon to be clothed in the robe of reason (Tansey and Kleiner 722).

Venus does not conform to the principles of anatomy. Her posture or stance is humanly impossible.

Her body is elongated (limbs, neck). But she is divine, not truly human. The scallop shell is also a Christian symbol.

Her hands covering her body recalls ancient statues of the “modest Venus.”

Leonardo

Last Supper, p 420. (Painted on dry plaster, 1495-98, Milan)

How does the artist direct our gaze?

What Renaissance elements do you see used here?

“One of you will betray me,” says the serene Jesus to his agitated friends.

Mona Lisa (La Gioconda), Leonardo

“Lady Lisa,” Mrs. Giocondo

Kept the painting for himself

What is her expression?

Blurry effect: sfumato (smoky)

Strange, fantasy landscape

Hands

P 421

Madonna of the Meadow

Raphael, 1508

Mary, Jesus, John the Baptist

Very delicate halos

Human interaction

Religious symbolism

P 423

Philosophy (The School of Athens)

Raphael

Fresco

1509-1511

19 x 27 feet

Vatican

Plato & Aristotle

P 424

Work Cited

Tansey, Richard G. and Fred S. Kleiner. Gardner’s Art Through the Ages. 10th ed., Harcourt, 1996.

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