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Module 11 focuses on strategies for analyzing qualitative data. The assignment is to think about the research topic. If you were to use a qualitative methodology, how would you go about conducting your own research? Your submission will be to complete the checklist on pp. 357-359 of your text, entitled “Pinning Down the Data Analysis in a Qualitative Study.” Make sure that you answer each question thoroughly and that you do not skip questions for study guide.  Please number each response.   

Running Head: YOUTH VIOLENCE 1

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YOUTH VIOLENCE 11

Youth Violence

Shakitha Reed

PRST 5300

Dr. Schmidtke

University of Memphis

November 5, 2021

Violence among teenagers is a public health issue. The use of force to damage or threaten others falls under this category. Bullying, rioting, weapons threats, and gang violence are all examples of teenage violence. Every year, thousands of young people, their families, and communities are affected by the problem. It affects people of all genders, races, nationalities, and family income levels, as well as urban, suburban, rural, and tribal communities. It is said to occur on a daily basis across the United States. Every 24 hours, roughly 15 young people are killed.

Many young people in Washington, DC, have been victims of violence or have caused bodily injury to others, resulting in death. Rather than shunning violent youngsters, society could reclaim them by engaging positively in their lives. In Washington, DC, the rate of arrests for violent crime among teenagers aged 10 to 17 was 158 per 100,000 from 2012 to 2014. Young people aged 18-24 had a 342 per 100 000 arrest rate. Adolescents and young adults have greater rates of violent crime, according to the data. In Washington, like in the rest of the country, more than three-quarters of children arrested for major violent offences are boys (Sebel, 2013).

There are various reasons for the increase in Youth violence. Many researchers tried to look at every aspect to understand and minimize the problem. The interconnectedness of adversity in infancy (ACEs) domestic violence may take many forms of physical or verbal abuse (Bennet & Joe, 2015). Additional study has indicated that certain populations, such as the elderly, have an even greater rate of ACEs—children of alcoholics, as well as minors dealing with the legal system participation for the most part. Interpersonal and psychological discomfort are also linked to community violence exposure. However, there has been relatively little study on the link between suicide and communal violence, particularly among African American and Latino youth.

A significant share of the urban population is made up of African Americans and Latinos. As a result, further study is needed, especially because teenagers in metropolitan areas are more likely to be exposed to high levels of communal violence. According to studies, self-harming and suicidal cases among African American and Latino teenagers in metropolitan areas are around two times as common as the national average (Bushman, 2016).

This shows that specific social and environmental elements unique to the urban environment may play a role in the greater occurrence of suicidal conduct among these people. To date, clinical or small community samples have been employed in investigations on community violence exposure and suicidality. There are currently no studies on urban African American and Latino teenagers that use population-based samples. As a result, the current study examines the data generated from the “Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Youth Violence Survey”; researchers looked at a ratio of the suicidal or self-harming rate among the Latino of African-American youths in experimental samples.

Early childhood violence based on the violence from their homes plays a very important role in youth violence. The harmful impacts of domestic violence on children are divided into two categories, “behavioral and emotional functioning, and cognitive functioning and attitudes” based on the studies of kids that have experienced domestic violence, on the other hand, compared to children who had not been domestic abuse exposed. People exhibited more externalized (aggressive) and internalized (fear, inhibition) behaviors. The various tests that were created were not designed to check the behavior or changes in behavior of children or rather to assess children’s behavioral and emotional disorders as a result of exposure to domestic violence was used in many of the existing studies. Boys who had been exposed to parental violence showed more positive attitudes toward violence than both girls and boys who had not been exposing according to Kimball’s study (2016) (Kimball, 2016).

Early childhood violence, along with community violence, impacts children’s or youth exposure to violence and adapt a similar behavior in their adolescence or youth. Another aspect of childhood violence is intimate partner violence (IPV). It is described as physical, sexual, or emotional abuse between partners that is threatened, attempted, or completed. According to surveys from throughout the world, approximately between 10 to 69 % of the women have had domestic violence at the hand of their spouse, explaining the higher ratio of IPV. Women are not the only victims of IPV in these settings, but their kids are also a part of this IPV abuse. The overarching purpose of this study is also to look at youth abuse from the angle of IPV. The impact IPV has on kids may lead to youth violence as it affects their mental and psychological health to a very significant level. Physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse are all examples of direct victimization of children. Various studies have found that the offspring of female IPV victims are regularly subjected to psychological, physical, and sexual violence. According to this research, approximately 20% to 70% of youngsters may be direct victims of criminals’ hostility. Indirect victimization is the second type of victimization, which occurs when children see violence against their moms. The IPV situations that happen at home are eye-witnessed by approximately 90% of the children, according to research. Learning violent behavior is becoming more widely recognized as one of the difficulties produced by being a victim of IPV since it indicates, in some situations, two-fold victimization of the mothers. As a result of IPV, along with the women, children also establish behavioral issues, mainly having the aggressiveness, high temperament, and extreme behaviors that they conduct toward classmates and moms. In terms of child-to-parent violence, new research with teenagers reveals that exposure to domestic violence. However, no study has yet linked the IPV and youth violence being conducted against the affected kid’s mother but is kept in consideration based on the perspectives of mothers who have had IPV encounters. The interviewing of the mothers, in this case, would help researcher’s better grasp the relationship between family violence and the development of violent behavior toward mothers. A research study was done regarding the IVP, and its effect on children was studied by Izaguirre & Calvete (2015); in this study, around 30 mothers were interviewed having children at least 18 years and had experienced IVP. Based on the interviews, there were significant differences in the behavior, aggression, and attitude towards life as compared to the adolescents or kids who have not experienced IVP. They had very high aggression behavior and faced significant issues in their school life. There were five main problems that were found common the children who faced IVP they were not only witnessing the violence but also were the victim of the violence, faced distress and fear at the time of the abuse, and had big psychological problems that affected their life significantly (Izaguirre & Calvete, 2015; Lambella & Masten, 2017). The research that is conducted on IVP has little insight into the IVP encounters eye-witnessed by children in the vicinity of their homes and the effect it has on their emotional and psychological well-being, and the impact that it has on their lives. It is essential to understand the behavior of kids due to violence at home or on their mothers under IPV. The findings of Izaguirre and Calvete in their study demonstrate that it does have an effect on the aggressive behavior of some kids directed to their mother, but the significance of the study is limited due to a small number of interviews group. Some mothers experienced aggressive behavior directed to them because of eye witnessing IPV, but some mothers reported very gentle behavior.

Mothers also frequently report that their children experience some major difficulties, e.g., “psychological, social, and academic issues.” Their acquisition of hostile behavior is notable since their behavior is not only directed at home but also towards their classmates, friends, or colleagues but majorly towards their mother. Owing to this kind of experience, many youngsters who have been exposed to IPV appear to adopt roles that are similar to those of young adults.

In another study, children with aggressive behavior against people and life had an overlap of another component along the IVP. It was seen that along with IVP, there was overlap found, including the tolerance of communality towards public and domestic violence in different types of family relations. The study of common elements accepts domestic violence as a norm, but there are other domains of family violence research that are not covered extensively by the researchers and have insufficient integration of their distinct literature. The widespread acceptability of family violence, as seen by different research studies, helps to build a link between two kinds of violence that are inextricably linked, recognizing the overlap between IPV and CA (Gracia et al., 2020). Intimate partner and parent-child relationships have a link to attitudes toward violence, which are both risk factors for IPV and CA. The general acceptability of family violence might be considered as a risk factor for many types of family violence in this perspective.

In general, poor education and low parental income have been associated with greater levels of teenage violence in Washington, DC. Less violence is linked to higher academic attainment and youth success. Black, American Indian, and Alaska Native children ages 10-17 have a higher rate of violent crime arrests than white teenagers, according to the 2014 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey. At equal percentages, students of various ethnicities were reported fighting and carrying firearms at school. Family characteristics connected to race, such as a history of parental incarceration and poor income, were shown to be associated with inequalities between these minority groups and whites. The development of collective efficacy, which occurs when neighbors trust one another and are prepared to intervene to solve local problems, can help communities avoid violence. Crime and violence are low in communities with high collective efficacy, independent of sociodemographic variables or the amount of disorder present. Collective efficacy is one theory that can aid with this method. This theory’s key component is social cohesiveness, which involves trusted connections and a shared sense of values or standards when it comes to intervening in neighborhood issues. Along with collective efficacy, social cohesion can also help in tackling the problem and building a safer community. But the use of these interventions in a community proved to build a relationship of trust and mutual collaboration in the community along with the problem of intervening in each other problems, which is seen as a step back of this intervention (Ohmer, 2016). Due to an increase in the aggressive behaviors directed to either the spouse or child in the vicinity of home or the community, the child behavior in early childhood compared to later age groups is an ideal time to begin preventative initiatives. Specific therapy for children and in the nursery having poor emotional behavior as compared to other children should be investigated further in order to avoid future violent conduct, especially among children living in low-income metropolitan settings. Improvements in problem behavior and emotion regulation in young children have been linked to the Thinking Strategies curriculum and the Family Check-Up. Increased positive parenting and decreased mother sadness typically mediate the association between the proposed intervention and fewer behavioral problems in children. (Sitnick et al., 2017).

Along with these interventions, various programs and seminars can be arranged to work on youth violence as there has been an increasing ratio of youth violence in Washington DC. Along with the above-mentioned strategies, the aid of the government and private institutes can be utilized to bring the violence among youth to the baseline. As it is reported, solely the government programs have not been able to bring out the positive result in Washington DC regarding this problem (Roth, 2016). The task of providing effective intervention to respond to and alleviate the concerns associated with high-risk adolescents and their more extensive social surroundings is not being met by governmental and volunteer initiatives in Washington, DC that serve high-risk youth. The inclination of states to continue sponsoring untrained and fragmented programs with narrow treatments geared at treating certain behaviors or issues is one of the main reasons they are missing the point. These programs fail to incorporate local and regional systemic change that supports public health-oriented, interagency, and comprehensive activities aimed at underserved settings and program and service restructuring to help the youth and community tackle the problem (Roth & Brooks-Gunn, 2016).

In Washington State, a number of local government initiatives are aimed at assisting kids who are in danger of being exposed to violence. Among these are the Clark County Youth Program, the Bellevue Youth Link Program, and the King County Safe Place Program.

The Clark County Adolescents Program is a collection of programs aimed at preventing substance misuse, aggression, and other social skills, as well as providing chances for youth to express themselves and acquire developmental assets and protective factors. With the help of devoted staff and community members, the program aims to meet the needs of Clark County adolescents and their families. This program assists teenagers who are dealing with emotional and behavioral issues. Trauma, anxiety, despair, substance abuse, and resistance are all examples of mental health issues. The program serves teenagers between the ages of 14 and 18 who require therapeutic support in dealing with personal issues. It is one of the greatest programs for teenagers seeking a loving environment in which to accept positive change while preserving academic achievement and improving interpersonal connections. The change in the youth who participate in this program is exciting, engaging, and long-lasting, with significant improvement.

Bellevue Youth Link is a youth-at-risk organization that provides services to young people aged 11 to 18, allowing them to plan and manage important community initiatives. Several children in the neighborhood have been involved in the program, which has provided them with the opportunity to make a difference in their lives. The Youth Link Board works to promote diversity, equity, and togetherness among Bellevue high school students, as well as to reflect the youth’s voice in community leadership. It serves as a catalyst for reacting to community problems and desires by including everyone. It aspires to make Bellevue a place where all kids feel included, respected, cherished and cared for. The King County Safe Program is a partnership between Seattle’s Young Care and East and North King County’s youth allies. The program helps youngsters in crisis and, in the process, creates a safety net for them. A safe space is an outreach program designed to provide immediate protection and assistance to kids ages 11 to 17 who are experiencing a crisis. Local organizations and companies participate in safe place sites, which connect teenagers and youth in distress to community emergency shelters or support. School and church may both serve as safe-havens. Kids Emergency Teen Shelter Program allies for boys and girls ages 11-17, Street outreach program, and Youth Haven for at-risk youths aged 15-22 collaborate with these locations. These programs, along with a number of others in Washington, DC, have made a difference in the lives of young people via the services they provide (Yohalem, & Wilson-Ahlstrom, 2010; Frankford, 2007). They all share the goal of involving kids in activities that promote positive conduct, hence reducing their exposure to violence in Washington.

Across Washington, the number of adolescents exposed to violence is quite high. When compared to those from high-income homes, those from low-income families are at a higher risk of violence. In comparison to whites, blacks, Indian Americans, and Alaska natives are the most vulnerable. Several groups provide support services to help youngsters avoid being involved in violence. These initiatives have made major efforts to assist high-risk adolescents in Washington, DC, in conjunction with governmental and non-profit groups, but they are failing to meet the task of providing effective intervention to address and alleviate the concerns of high-risk kids and their broader social environments. State policymakers and funding organizations should rethink sponsoring qualified and non-fragment programs with larger interventions that target a wide range of juvenile behaviors and problems. Based on prior research, this paper seeks to discriminate between risk variables for teen violent and nonviolent conduct in a high-risk group by looking at antecedents of teenage violence throughout early infancy from multiple domains and informants in an at-risk sample. Early childhood prevention programs that focus on parenting and emotional control in children appear to have the ability to lower future violent crime rates. Early childhood prevention programs that specifically target improving the parent’s behavior towards their children and, in general, the behavior of any adult to kids should be highlighted as it is considered one of the main concerns of this problem. Regulating parents’ behavior and their behavior with their spouse should be regulated using various interventions or programs as it can reduce future crimes significantly. Another main aspect of limiting future crimes is directing the programs, especially to low-income families or communities, and towards toddlers who exhibit behavioral issues. The early childhood preventive programs which aid in regulating emotional behavior along with the improvements in parenting can contribute to the limited future crimes and improve lives.

References

Baglivio, M. T., & Epps, N. (2016). The interrelatedness of adverse childhood experiences among high-risk juvenile offenders. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice14(3), 179-198. Doi:10.1177/1541204014566286 

Bennett Jr, M. D., & Joe, S. (2015). Exposure to community violence, suicidality, and psychological distress among African American and Latino youths: Findings from the CDC Youth Violence Survey. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment25(8), 775-789. Doi:10.1080/10911359.2014.922795

Bushman, B. J., Newman, K., Calvert, S. L., Downey, G., Dredze, M., Gottfredson, M., … & Webster, D. W. (2016). Youth violence: What we know and what we need to know. American Psychologist71(1), 17-39. Doi:10.1037/a0039687

Fox, B. H., Perez, N., Cass, E., Baglivio, M. T., & Epps, N. (2015). Trauma changes everything: Examining the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and serious, violent and chronic juvenile offenders. Child abuse & neglect46, 163-173. Doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.01.011 

Gracia, E., Rodriguez, C. M., Martín-Fernández, M., & Lila, M. (2020). Acceptability of family violence: Underlying ties between intimate partner violence and child abuse. Journal of interpersonal violence35(17-18), 3217-3236. Doi:10.1177/0886260517707310 

Izaguirre, A., & Calvete, E. (2015). Children who are exposed to intimate partner violence: Interviewing mothers to understand its impact on children. Child abuse & neglect48, 58-67. Doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.05.002 

Kimball, E. (2016). Edleson revisited: Reviewing children’s witnessing of domestic violence 15 years later. Journal of Family Violence31(5), 625-637. Doi:10.1007/s10896-015-9786-7 

Labella, M. H., & Masten, A. S. (2018). Family influences on the development of aggression and violence. Current opinion in psychology19, 11-16. Doi:10.1016/j.copsyc.2017.03.028 

Ohmer, M. L. (2016). Strategies for preventing youth violence: Facilitating collective efficacy among youth and adults. Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research7(4), 681-705. Doi:10.1086/689407 

Sitnick, S. L., Shaw, D. S., Weaver, C. M., Shelleby, E. C., Choe, D. E., Reuben, J. D., … & Taraban, L. (2017). Early childhood predictors of severe youth violence in low‐income male adolescents. Child development88(1), 27-40. Doi:10.1111/cdev.12680 

Frankford, E. R. (2007). Changing Service Systems for High-Risk Youth Using State-Level Strategies. American Journal of Public Health97 (4), 594-599. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2006.096347

Roth, L. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2016). Evaluating Youth Development Programs: Progress and Promise. Applied Developmental Science20 (3), 188-202. https://doi.org/10.1080/10888691.2015.1113879

Sabel, J. (2013). The health of Washington State: Youth Violence. Washington State Department of Health. https://www.doh.wa.gov/Portals/1/Documents/1500/IV-YV2013.pdf

Yohalem, N. & Wilson-Ahlstrom, A. (2010). Inside the black box: Assessing and improving quality in youth programs. American Journal of Community Psychology45, 350-357. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-010-9311-3

Research Drop Box 11

Top of Form

Module 11 focuses on strategies for analyzing qualitative data. Your Dropbox assignment for this week is to think about your own research topic. If you were to use a qualitative methodology, how would you go about conducting your own research? Your submission for this assignment will be to complete the checklist on pp. 357-359 of your text, entitled “Pinning Down the Data Analysis in a Qualitative Study.” Make sure that you answer each question thoroughly and that you do not skip questions.Number your answers so that it is easy to find them. APA Style – Use 12pt Times New Roman font.My research topic is listed below-Youth ViolenceThe research area that I am interested in is that of youth violence in Washington DC. I am interested in this area because youth violence has become a major concern in Washington DC, evident with the increase in the number of youths arrested and convicted for serious violent crimes. For these issues to be addressed in Washington DC and other parts of the country, a study needs to be carried out to identify the cause of youth violence.Research ProblemThere has been an increase in the causes of youth violence in Washington DC, which has resulted in the state and different researchers trying to understand the causes of youth violence and how these causes can be addressed to reduce the causes of youth violence.Statement of PurposeThe purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between youth violence in Washington DC and child abuse and domestic violence and how the issue of child abuse and domestic violence can be addressed.Research Questions1. Does early childhood abuse result in youth violence?2. What is the relationship between domestic violence and youth violence?3. How can the issue of child abuse and domestic abuse be addressed to prevent further cases of youth violence as a result of these issues?HypothesisThe first hypothesis for this research is that early childhood abuse can result in cases of youth violence. The second hypothesis is that there is a direct link between domestic violence and youth violence. The last hypothesis is that there are gender differences in terms of how males and females are impacted by child abuse and domestic violence as they develop into violent youth.ParticipantsThe research participants will be obtained through an advertisement put up on random schools in Washington DC. An equal number of males and females will be in the research, which will test and verify the third hypothesis on how females and males are impacted by child abuse and domestic violence as they develop into violent youth. The participants will be eligible to participate in the research after informed consent has been obtained from their parents or legal guardians (Ahern, 2012). The school teachers will also be involved in the study since it will examine the participants’ behaviors from preschool through adolescence. The information collected from these participants will be private and confidential unless there will be a legal requirement to share this information or the participants have given out consent for their information to be disclosed.Design and MaterialsThe quasi-experimental research design will be used during the research (Price et al., 2015). The materials that will be needed will be three types of questionnaires. The first questionnaire will collect information on the participants’ family and home environment, while the second questionnaire will gather information regarding youth violence victimization. The last questionnaire will collect information on youth violence penetration.MethodologyThe research will start after informed consent has been obtained from the participants of the study. The researchers will administer the first questionnaire, collecting information about the family and home environment. The questionnaire will contain 45 questions to help determine if the participants have been exposed to child abuse or domestic violence during their childhood. The second and third questionnaires will be administered after ten years, and it will have thirty questions that will be self-administered to determine if the participants are victims or perpetrators of youth violence. Statistical analysis will then be carried out by applying bivariate regression methods to help determine the link between child abuse and domestic violence with various forms of violence. Quantitative research will then be carried out to help determine how domestic violence and child abuse can be prevented to prevent future incidents of youth violence.ReferencesAhern, K. (2012). Informed consent: are researchers accurately representing risks and benefits?. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences26(4), 671-678.Price, P. C., Jhangiani, R. S., & Chiang, I. C. A. (2015). Quasi-experimental research. Research Methods in Psychology.Youth Violence in Washington DCNumerous youths of Washington, DC, are victims of violence or causing bodily harm to others, leading to death. Rather than rejecting youths involved in violence, society should reclaim them by getting into their lives in a good way. From 2012-2014, the rate of arrests for violent crime for youths aged 10-17 was 158 per 100,000 in Washington DC (Sabel, 2013). The arrest rate for young adults aged 18-24 was 342 per 100 000 (Sabel, 2013). The rates indicate that violent crime rates are higher among adolescents and young adults. Like the rest of the United States, more than three-quarters of youth arrests for serious violent crimes are males in Washington.Gaps in Service for Youths Exposed to Violence in WashingtonOverall, higher levels of youth violence in Washington DC have been linked to low education and low parental income. Less violence is associated with school achievement and the success of the youth (Sabel, 2013). Based on the 2014 Washington State Healthy Youth Survey, black, American Indian, and Alaska Native youths aged 10-17 show high violent crime rate arrests than white youths (Sabel, 2013). Students from these ethnicities were reported fighting and carrying weapons at school at similar rates. The differences between these minority groups and whites were associated with family factors related to race, such as a history of parental arrest and low income (Sabel, 2013). These youths live in high crime areas that pose them at a higher risk for behavioral problems. Some studies indicate that maternal distress and socioeconomic status influence how community violence affects the child’s behavior.Regardless of the significant efforts of various governmental and voluntary programs in Washington DC that high-risk youth, they are not meeting the challenge of availing effective intervention to respond to and ameliorate the concerns related to high-risk youth and their more comprehensive social settings. A primary key reason they are missing the mark is the tendency of states to continue funding unqualified and fragmented programs with narrow interventions targeted at fixing specific behaviors or problems. These programs fail to integrate local and regional systematic change that promotes public health-oriented, interagency, and comprehensive initiatives targeting underprovided environments and restructuring programs and services to empower individuals, families, and communities (Roth & Brooks-Gunn, 2016). Thus, funding agencies and state policymakers must take action to utilize the scarce resources to achieve better youth outcomes in Washington by increasing appropriations to remedy the cuts that school-and community-based services endure. In addition, they should support advocacy by health, community, and school partnerships to create a comprehensive vision of early intervention and specific interventions to prevent violent and risk-taking behaviors among youths.Youth at Risk Programs in Washington, DC, Services Offered, and Ages servedVarious local government programs in Washington State focus on helping youths at risk of being exposed to violence. They include the Clark County youth Program, Bellevue Youth Link Program, and King County Safe Place Program, among several others.Clark County Youth Program consists of services that seek to prevent substance abuse, violence, and other social skills, provide opportunities for youth voice, and build developmental assets and protective factors. The program seeks to address the needs of youths and their families in Clark County with dedicated staff and community members. This program helps teens struggling with emotional and behavioral challenges. Mental health challenges can include trauma, anxiety, depression, substance use, and defiance. The program accommodates youths of ages 14-18 who need therapeutic assistance in coping with personal struggles. It is the best programs for teens looking for a nurturing setting that will allow them to embrace positive change while maintaining progress in school and bettering interpersonal relationships. The transformation in teens enrolled in this program is inspiring, engaging, and lasting with noteworthy progress.Bellevue Youth Link is a youth-at-risk program that gives services to youths aged 11-18 years, offering them a way to create and lead meaningful community projects. The program has engaged several youths in the community and offered them opportunities to create a difference in their lives. The Youth Link Board seeks to promote diversity, equity, and unity for high school youths in Bellevue, representing the youth’s voice to lead in the community. It acts as a catalyst for responding to the concerns and requests by engaging the whole community. It envisions making Bellevue a city where all youths feel involved, respected, valued, and given attention. Above all, it aims to make it a city where all youths feel safe, are protected, and make it enjoyable. Ultimately, the impact of Bellevue Youth Link is to enhance youth quality of life as well as the quality of life for other members of the community.The King County Safe Program is a collaborative effort between Youth Care in Seattle and youth allies in East and North King County. Jointly, the program supports youths in crises and, in the process, create a safety net for youths. A safe place is an outreach program devised to give immediate safety and help for youths aged 11-17 in crisis. Safe place sites include local organizations and businesses to connect teens and youth in crisis to community emergency shelter or resources. School and church can also become safe places. These places work collaboratively with Youths Emergency Teen Shelter Program allies for boys and girls aged 11-17, Street outreach program, and Youth Haven for at-risk youths aged 15-22. Among several others in Washington DC, these programs have made a difference in the lives of youths through the services they offer. They collectively aim to engage youths in activities that encourage positive behavior, ultimately mitigating their exposure to violence throughout Washington.Ideal Program to Serve Youths Exposed to ViolenceYouths need support and growth opportunities that include positive relationships with caring parents or caregivers, skill-building opportunities, and challenging experiences. Therefore, programs that serve youths exposed to violence should be developmentally appropriate devised to prepare teens and youths for productive adulthood by offering supports and opportunities that help them gain the competencies of knowledge required to face the increasing challenges they will meet as they grow (Roth & Brooks-Gunn, 2016). Hence, an ideal program to serve youths exposed to violence should foster positive developmental settings.The components of positive developmental settings include physical and psychological safety, support for efficacy and mattering, appropriate structure, supportive relationships, opportunities for belonging, opportunities for skill-building, positive social norms, and the incorporation of school, family, and community efforts. In addition, the goals of such a program should seek to promote positive development by striving to prevent problem behaviors. To achieve this, the program’s design should foster an atmosphere that supports positive relationships with peers and adults, empowers youth, offers opportunities for recognition, and communicates expectations for positive behavior (Yohalem & Wilson-Ahlstrom, 2010). In addition, the program activities should allow youths to participate in building skills, broadening their horizons, and engaging in authentic and challenging activities (Yohalem & Wilson-Ahlstrom, 2010). All these features are fundamental for the youth-at-risk program for allowing youths to develop positive behaviors.The perfect program to serve youth exposed to violence in the Washington DC area should meet this criterion. High-risk youth living in Washington are susceptible to numerous and intersecting problems. As aforementioned, these problems include violent and risk-taking behaviors such as fighting, carrying weapons, substance abuse, emotional and behavioral disorders, and poor connection to performance at school (Frankford, 2007). In addition, these youths are more likely to live in vulnerable families and in insufficiently supportive communities, which leads to high conflict rates exposing them to high-risk activities.The King County Safe Place Program, for instance, collaborates with community, non-profits, and business organizations to help the youths learn about the program through school and community presentations. They also aid in the distribution of Safe Place information cards, public service announcements, and cards. Within this program, youth or teen can enter a library, business, or community building displaying the Safe Place symbol and seek help. Then, a site employee makes a call to the Safe Place collaboration and makes the youth comfortable until the staff member arrives. The staff keeps in touch with the youth’s parent or guardian to ensure his or her safety. If the youth need residential assistance, he or she is transported to the nearby emergency youth shelter. While at the youth agency, the youth meet the staff members who conduct assessments and determine subsequent steps. The agency’s staff members contact the youth’s family, help them receive help, and link them to professional referrals. This approach helps the program reach out to several youths across King County and its neighborhood.In conclusion, the number of youths exposed to violence is very high across Washington. Youths from low-income families are at high risk of violence compared to those of high-income families. The black, Indian American and Alaska natives are at the most significant risk compared to whites. Numerous programs offer support services to help prevent youths from engaging in violence. These programs have made significant efforts in collaboration with governmental and voluntary organizations in Washington DC to help high-risk youth. However, they are not meeting the challenge of availing effective intervention to respond to and ameliorate the concerns related to high-risk youth and their more comprehensive social settings. The state policymakers and funding agencies should reconsider funding qualified and non-fragment programs with broader interventions that address comprehensive behaviors and problems among youths.Checklist on pp. 357-359 of your text, entitled “Pinning Down the Data Analysis in a Qualitative Study.” Make sure that you answer each question thoroughly and that you do not skip questions.

Running head: SPIRAL DATA ANALYSIS

2

SPIRAL DATA ANALYSIS 2

Spiral data analysis

Student’s name:

Professor:

Date:

Yes, I think the data analysis spiral is concise as it captures all the qualitative analysis involved in efforts to have the information comprehended and the phenomena understood (Creswell, 2007). The data analysis via spiral makes it easy to synthesis data and reconnects the coming knowledge to what is already known. To effectively manage the data, there is a need to have the coding done, which is present when it comes to the spiral data analysis hence making it too concise.

According to Creswell, he urged that the research design refers to the pattern that is followed by the researcher in attempts to collect, interpret, analyze, and also interpret the information or data .for effectiveness, the way the data was mined and analyzed is important (Creswell, 2007). This calls for the need to have the describing and classifying as a separate coding and cause the interpretation to be its loop. Data when collected or when mined can mean anything; it must be described to be understood by the user. Description of data makes it easy to understand the reading and the purpose of the data mined (Hennink et al., 2020). When the researcher gets the description of the data, one is in a better position to put it into, especially if it fits into the intended purpose of data mining and meets the intended target. Data description captures some vital aspects, including the motive behind the data mining, the possible usage, analysis, and strengths and weaknesses. Data classification is another essential component in data analysis, and it is completely different from the description. Classification makes it easy to gather data that are closely related or contain the same features or characteristics. Researchers dealing with data must t all times story to get engagements with the data via the reflections and the readings; hence a need to have the mined data described, interpreted, and classified. Data i=mining and analysis is never complete without having the representations or the visualization of the data meant for others. The many varied ways in which data can be represented and be described make it be its loop as there is room for varied interpretation and representation. The data description and interpretation process under which data reviews can be done as a process curtesy of some predefined processes. Interpretation assists in assigning meaning to data and also concluding relevantly. Results of the data analysis are taken and be involved in other tasks.

References

Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. SAGE.

Hennink, M., Hutter, I., & Bailey, A. (2020). Undefined. SAGE.

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