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The Ramayana is often interpreted as a meditation upon the Hindu value of dharma. What seems to be the meaning of dharma? How do different characters in the story embody or dharma or its opposite? Can you think of example in which the heroes of the story take actions or have thoughts that can be seen as questionable in relationship to dharma? How would you compare and contrast dishonoring dharma with the Greek concept of hubris?

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English Open Textbooks English

Fall 2015

Compact Anthology of World Literature Laura Getty University of North Georgia, [email protected]

Kyounghye Kwon University of North Georgia, [email protected]

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World l i t e r a t u r e

Compact Anthology of

Pa r t O n e T h e A n c i e n t W o r l d

Editor-in-Chief: laura Getty, PhD

Co-Editor: KyounGhye Kwon, PhD

Dahlonega, GA

Compact Anthology of World Literature is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share- Alike 4.0 International License.

This license allows you to remix, tweak, and build upon this work, even commercially, as long as you credit this original source for the creation and license the new creation under identical terms.

If you reuse this content elsewhere, in order to comply with the attribution requirements of the license please attribute the original source to the University System of Georgia.

NOTE: The above copyright license which University System of Georgia uses for their original content does not extend to or include content which was accessed and incorporated, and which is licensed under various other CC Licenses, such as ND licenses. Nor does it extend to or include any Special Permissions which were granted to us by the rightsholders for our use of their content. To determine copyright status of any content please refer to the bibliographies and appendices for original source information to further research specific copyright licenses.

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ISBN: 978-1-940771-22-9

This title is a product of a Complete College Georgia grant.

Produced by: University System of Georgia

Published by: University of North Georgia Press Dahlonega, Georgia

Cover Design and Layout Design: Corey Parson

For more information, please visit http://ung.edu/university-press Or email [email protected]

Chapter 1: Middle east, Near east, GreeCe 1 Hebrew Bible, “Genesis” and “Exodus” 4 The Epic of Gilgamesh 76 The Iliad and The Odyssey 101 Medea 340 Oedipus the King 364

Chapter 2: ChiNa 411 The Analects 412 The Art of War 444 The Book of Songs 451 The Mother of Mencius 463 The Zhuangzi 465

Chapter 3: iNdia 471 The Bhagavad Gita 472 The Mahabharata 477 The Râmâyana 535

Chapter 4: roMe 621 The Aeneid 622 Metamorphoses 874

BiBlioGraphy 893

appeNdix 895

T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s

Acknowledgements This anthology is the product of a Complete College Georgia grant, and I would like to thank the Board of Re-

gents of the University System of Georgia for making this project possible. Many individuals at the University Press of North Georgia worked long hours on various aspects of the anthology, and I appreciate their time and effort; in particular, I would like to thank Corey Parson, managing editor, for her professionalism and support during this long process. Terri E. Bell, senior library assistant/ copyright compliance at UNG-Dahlonega, had the vital job of checking copyrights and researching the public domain content for this open access project, and I am grateful for her hard work and dedication.

Written by Editor-in-Chief Laura J. Getty, Ph.D.

A large part of my portion of this textbook came to fruition while time-traveling with my World Literature I students to familiar and unfamiliar places in the Ancient, Middle Ages, and Renaissance periods. I am first grate- ful for those students’ participation and insights, and I give special thanks to Dr. Joyce Stavick, head of the English Department at UNG, who kindly arranged for me to teach those classes during the time of my writing. This text- book could not have been made possible without our past, present, and future students who are willing to take the journey to different parts of the world in different times.

Important acknowledgments go to the Complete College Georgia Grant that critically funded this project. I also express my sincere gratitude to Dr. B. J. Robinson, director of the university press, for her thoughtful leader- ship, Dr. Deborah Prosser, dean of libraries, for providing helpful feedback, and Terri E. Bell, senior library assis- tant, for her extensive work on public domain research and copyright compliance, as well as to the anonymous peer-reviewers. My gratitude also goes to Dr. Laura Getty, editor-in-chief, with her seasoned teaching experience and broad knowledge. I am also grateful to Corey Parson, managing editor, Amy Beard, assistant managing editor, and Matthew Pardue, project editor, for their tireless work. Last but not least, I thank my family for their support and understanding during the time I spent on this project.

Despite multiple examinations of this textbook, there may be errors and areas of improvement. Fortunately, this online textbook can be periodically updated. I hope that this textbook will be of good use to students and teachers alike.

Written by Co-editor Kyounghye Kwon, Ph.D.

Introduction

i

Reading about any culture foreign to one’s own tends to create a form of culture shock in the reader. In a world literature class, students frequently face texts that are completely unfamiliar to them, and the typical culture shock reactions set in. We tend not to like things that we do not understand, in part because we do not like the feeling of not knowing something. I have had students complain that they did not “like” a story before we discussed it in class, and then the same students decide after the class discussion that they now like it. Again, understanding and liking go hand in hand. Give the literature a chance; something that might not make sense at first may end up being one of your favorite stories after finding a way to approach it.

That being said, whether students like a story is not the point of reading that text in a literature class. We read literature in these classes to learn something. It is a nice addition to the experience if students like the works, but we can read and analyze texts that we do not enjoy just as effectively as the ones we do: In some cases, it is actually easier. Critical thinking comes from taking something that is unfamiliar, breaking it down into manageable chunks of infor- mation, fitting it back together, and using the experience to replicate the process in other situations in the future.

A literature class is, of course, a perfect place to learn critical thinking skills. When interpreting a text, pre- tend that you are a lawyer in a courtroom arguing a case. Not all cases have smoking guns; most are won or lost on circumstantial evidence alone. The interpretation needs to be based primarily on evidence from the text; therefore, there can be more than one possible approach, but some interpretations can be wrong if there is no support in the text for the generalizations that the student uses. Evidence is the key; based on what the text tells us, what do we actually know? Expert opinions (secondary sources) may help, but remember that both sides in a court case usually can call some expert who will agree with them. Authorial intention is not entirely out of bounds in such an argu- ment, but it operates on the same principles: What can we actually argue, based on the evidence? For instance, any knowledge of Hemingway’s personal history makes it unlikely that the story “Soldier’s Home” could be interpreted as unsupportive of soldiers. Alternately, there are cases when the author’s life is of little or no help. Faulkner refused to tell an interviewer what the meaning of “A Rose for Emily” was, preferring perhaps that the reader not be limited by a simple (or simplistic) explanation of meaning.

In every interpretation, remember to distinguish between the views of the original audience and the views of the modern reader. While a text may remind students about their grandfathers, that association does not often help when interpreting a story written by someone years ago who did not know their grandfather. (It may, of course, help students interpret their interpretations, but, except for the very best reader response theorists out there, that approach is more commonly found in a different field of study.) If the story is about a grandfather in ancient Greece, the com- parison with their grandfather would be most useful if it helped focus them on what the characters in that time period in Greek society thought about grandfathers (or treated them, or talked to them, etc.) back then that is similar to or different from modern expectations. In other words, what does the work tell us about the expectations of the original audience? Without at least a solid guess about what the original audience thought about the work, it is impossible to discuss whether the author is writing something that conforms to society’s expectations or argues against them, let alone what the original audience was expected to learn from the story, or how it expected to be entertained.

The expectations of the audience bring us full circle to the issue of culture shock once again. Students in U.S. universities often feel more comfortable with American or British literature, since the K-12 school system in the U.S. usually emphasizes those works. Even if some students have not lived through the 1960s in the U.S., there is still a sense of familiarity to students raised in the U.S., although they might not understand as much of the deeper social context as they think they do. A world literature class may be the first place that some students have encoun- tered European works, let alone non-Western texts. The emphasis in this anthology, therefore, is on non-Western and European works, with only the British authors who were the most influential to European and non-Western au- thors (such as Shakespeare, whose works have influenced authors around the world to the present day). In a world literature class, there is no way that a student can be equally familiar with all of the societies, contexts, time periods, cultures, religions, and languages that they will encounter; even though the works presented here are translated,

Compact Anthology of World Literature

ii

students will face issues such as unfamiliar names and parts of the story (such as puns) that may not translate well or at all. Since these stories are rooted in their cultures and time periods, it is necessary to know the basic context of each work to understand the expectations of the original audience. The introductions in this anthology are meant to be just that: a basic overview of what students need to know before they begin reading, with topics that students can research further. An open access literature textbook cannot be a history book at the same time, but history is the great companion of literature: The more history students know, the easier it is for them to interpret literature.

These works can help students understand the present, as well. In an electronic age, with this text available to anyone with computer access around the world, it has never been more necessary to recognize and understand differences among nationalities and cultures. The literature in this anthology is foundational, in the sense that these works influenced the authors who followed them. For Western literature, it is necessary to know something about the Trojan War (and the Trojan Horse) to understand everything from literary references to them (for almost three thousand or so years) to why a computer virus would be named a “Trojan Horse” because of what it does. In India, the characters in the Mahabharata and the Ramayana still show up in regular conversations, and it would be im- possible to read modern Indian literature without a basic knowledge of these texts, which are referenced frequently. Chinese literature is infused with Confucian concepts, which influenced Chinese culture for thousands of years. These are just a few of the examples of why these texts are important to this day, and the introductions will explain the influence of each work.

A word to the instructor: The texts have been chosen with the idea that they can be compared and contrasted, using common themes. Rather than numerous (and therefore often random) choices of texts from various periods, these selected works are meant to make both teaching and learning easier. Students often learn better when there is a theme or a set of themes that they can use to make sense of the stories. For example, the differences among cul- tures and time periods in the definition of a hero are found throughout the anthology. As the time periods progress, the type of hero changes as well: warriors in the ancient world, knights and samurai in the medieval period, and soldiers in works set in the Renaissance. Many of the works examine the role of women in society, and each time period contains numerous works of social commentary. There are epics across world literature to compare, belief systems from the Greek pantheon of gods to Native American origin stories, and philosophical questions about ethical and moral behavior.

It is by comparing similar topics and themes that students are most easily able to see the significant differences in the cultures. If I ask students to discuss a work such as the Analects of Confucius, they often do not know where to begin or what to say. If I ask students to suggest what would happen if Gilgamesh were dropped into the environment of the Analects, they immediately see the problems: Gilgamesh is not a “gentleman” by Confucian standards, nor does he have the temperament to attract gentlemen retainers, who would expect courteous and proper behavior from him.

While cultural expectations are not universal, many of the themes found in these works are. Human beings have always cared about friendship, love, and finding their place in the world; we still read and watch stories of heroic journeys, bravery in its many forms, family relationships (good and bad), and the triumphs and tragedies of people who are not so different from ourselves.

As an example, the following assignment is one possible way to compare the texts in the Ancient World section.

Culture Shock Essay: take a character such as Achilles and place him in a story with a culture that would be completely foreign to him (such as the Mahabharata). How would he react to the people around him, and what would they think about him/his behavior? This topic could be mixed and matched: Hector in Gil- gamesh, Arjuna in the Aeneid, Aeneas in the Art of War, etc.

Again, by asking the students to compare cultures, it is easier for them to identify differences. Obviously, a similar type of essay would work in the medieval period and the Renaissance, and Ancient World texts could be compared to medieval or Renaissance texts as the term progresses.

A note about calendar systems: The anthology uses B.C.E. (Before Common Era) and C.E. (Common Era). As a world literature text, it seeks to be as inclusive as possible of belief systems around the world. Of course, the numbering system used comes from the Christian calendar’s B.C. (Before Christ) and A.D. (Anno Domini—in the year of our Lord); basically, Christianity is the determiner of what is Common Era and before. Since there needs to be a way of comparing time periods across these cultures, and today’s world uses the numbering system that stems from the Christian calendar, it is the system used throughout. It would be too unwieldy to use all of the relevant calendar systems, although it is worth noting to students that they exist. For instance, 2015 C.E. is the year 5776 in the Hebrew calendar, the year 4713 in the Chinese calendar, and 1436 in the Islamic calendar. For Hinduism, the current Epoch of this cycle of the universe (which is destroyed and remade numerous times) started in 3012 B.C.E., and the current Era in that Epoch started in 78 C.E. Obviously, it would be both difficult and confusing to employ more than one system.

iii

A n c i e n t W o r l d Pa r t O n e

Compact Anthology of World Literature

iv

Many of these ancient world texts concern themselves with the definition of a hero, as well as the (often sepa- rate) definition of a leader: A leader can be a hero, but a hero is not always a leader. Love for one’s family drives the actions of the majority of the characters in this section; romantic love has its place in the stories as well, although it is discussed less. Both societal and religious expectations play key roles in the behavior of these characters, so it will be necessary to understand a few details about those beliefs. The chapter introductions will address some basic religious beliefs for each region.

As with all the time periods in world literature, different events mark the end of the ancient world in different cultures. If the fall of Rome in 476 C.E. marks the end of an era in Europe, it is clearly an irrelevant date to cultures such as China and India. The unification of China under the Qin dynasty in 221 B.C.E. marks the end of Ancient China and the beginning of the Dynastic Period. Classical India ends somewhere between 550 C.E. (with the fall of the Gupta Empire) and 1206 C.E. (with the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate following hundreds of years of Islamic invasions).

While poetry is found in all of the ancient cultures included, a commonality across most of those cultures is epic poetry. Epic heroes often have some kind of supernatural ability, or are demigods, and/or have the help of the gods. In Gilgamesh, the title character is two-thirds god and one-third human (an interesting exercise for a mod- ern-day geneticist), while Achilles is the son of a goddess and a mortal man in the Iliad, as is Aeneas in the Aeneid. If Odysseus is not a demigod, he certainly is loved by the goddess Athena, who protects him through his journeys. In the Mahabharata, the main warriors of the story are all demigods, and in the Ramayana, the main character is a god: an avatar of the god Vishnu, sent down to earth in human form to fight evil. The Metamorphoses is the anti-ep- ic of the group, arguing that there are no real heroes: just gods and humans who make mistakes, forming history along the way.

Many of the works in this section have another commonality: They are foundational texts for their respective societies. Western literature would not exist in its present form without the influence of Greek and Roman epics or ancient Greek drama. References to the Trojan War, to Ovid, and to Oedipus (among many others) are found in media from literature (in the Middle Ages to the present day) to newspaper comic strips. Sun Tzu’s The Art of War is still taught around the world. In present-day India, the characters in the Mahabharata and the Ramayana are ref- erenced in everyday conversations. Confucian ethics influenced Chinese thought for well over two thousand years.

For Students:

The works in this section are meant to be compared and contrasted. Consider the following questions while reading: • Compare the definition of a hero in Gilgamesh, the Iliad, the Mahabharata, and the Aeneid. What does a

hero have to do to be admired by his own society? What can’t he do? • How are Gilgamesh and Achilles similar? How is Hector both similar and different to them? • How are the expectations for a gentleman in the Analects similar to the expectations for the sons of Pandu

in the Mahabharata? What makes Aeneas both similar and different to them? • What view of the gods do the characters have? What does their pantheon of gods expect from the charac-

ters, and what do they expect of the gods? • How do characters in this section deal with authority/authority figures? Why?

Written by Laura J. Getty

Middle East, Near East, Greece 1

1

The texts chosen for this chapter were influential in their own times and beyond. Gilgamesh was an ancient Sumerian king whose story was valued and retold by other cultures who invaded the area. The Bible remains one of the most widely read books in history. Homer’s epics form a cornerstone of western literature, and the two plays selected from ancient Greek drama influenced countless writers after them. Only the plays were originally written works; the other texts were part of an oral tradition before they were written down. Even then, the subject matter of the plays is not original to the authors: The audience knew the stories of Oedipus and Medea already. Homer was not the first (or the last) to compose poems on the Trojan War and its aftermath. Originality was not particularly prized in an oral culture, where only the best works were worth memorizing. Homer’s fame comes from how well he tells his version of events.

When reading the selected texts, remember that the contemporary definition of a hero or leader is often not compatible with the ancient world’s definition of a hero or leader. Each society, and sometimes each time period in each society, can have a different definition, based on what the expectations were. There is also a difference between the modern idea of an action hero and the ancient world’s definition of an epic hero. To be the hero of an epic, the character needs to meet at least some of the following requirements: He receives divine intervention (or is chosen by the gods to win), has superhuman strength or abilities, is of national or international importance, has the ability to overcome and learn from a personal flaw, and goes on a significant journey. The ultimate goal of epic heroes is to be remembered: achieving immortality through their deeds, which will live on in stories. Unlike a modern film

Image 1.1: Map of Mesopotamia | A map showing the borders of ancient Mesopotamia.

Author: NordNordWest Source: Wikimedia Commons License: CC BY 3.0

Compact Anthology of World Literature

2

Image 1.2: City of Uruk | A basic map of Uruk with notes on the city’s boundaries.

Author: Lamassu Design Source: Wikimedia Commons License: CC BY-SA 3.0

Image 1.3: Eanna District of Uruk | A map of Uruk’s Eanna District, with its buildings and notes.

Author: Lamassu Design Source: Wikimedia Commons License: CC BY-SA 3.0

Image 1.4: Anu District of Uruk | A map of Uruk’s Anu District, with its buildings and notes.

Author: Lamassu Design Source: Wikimedia Commons License: CC BY-SA 3.0

Image 1.5: Uruk in 2008 | An aerial view of the dig site at Warka in Iraq.

Author: SAC Andy Holmes (RAF) Source: Wikimedia Commons License: Open Government License (OGL)

3

hero who might be expected to act in the best interests of others, epic heroes may or may not act with other people’s interests in mind. Some of the epic heroes in this chapter fight to protect others, but many fight for personal glory, regardless of the collateral damage. In other words, an epic hero is an ideal warrior in his society, but not always an ideal human being. In the Iliad, Achilles is the greatest warrior among the Greeks, and his main concern is making a name for himself that will last forever. When he is insult- ed by Agamemnon, therefore, he asks that Zeus punish Achilles’ own side, slaughtering the Greeks until they beg him for forgiveness. Achilles fights for his own glory, not the glory of others.

In Gilgamesh, the title character begins the story as an impressive epic hero, but a poor leader (as the gods them- selves indicate in the story when they respond to the prayers of the citizens of Uruk, who are begging the gods to protect them from their own king). Gilgamesh’s lack of morality stems in part from his demigod status; as the ancient Sumerians recognized, their pantheon of gods was not particularly moral. Since epic heroes need the help of the gods to win, the focus is not on individual strength, but on gaining the favor of the gods. Yes, Gilgamesh is strong, but to fight the supernatural creature Humbaba, Gilgamesh needs help: his mother’s prayers to the gods, his friend Enkidu’s support, supernatural weapons from the god Shamash (namely the winds), and his tears as offerings to Shamash in exchange for his help. The expectations

for a good king are clear in the text, but they conflict on some level with the expectations for an epic hero in this case.

The hero who receives divine intervention is the one who wins every time, so being humble to the gods is vital for success. When Brad Pitt plays Achilles in the movie Troy, there are no toddler tantrums; in the Iliad, Achilles cries every time he wants the help of his mother, the god- dess Thetis. The modern film expectations for the character of Achilles would be foreign (and strange, and irreligious) to the original audience, just as a modern American film audience would not be impressed by an action hero who sobbed to his mother for help. The original audience, how- ever, would be familiar with example after example of how pointless it is to try to win without the help of the gods: No matter who would have won based on his own strength, the gods determine the final result. Human strength means little in such a universe.

Equally pointless is the attempt to change fate, which is the one force in the Greek stories that is stronger than the gods. Zeus cannot change the outcome of various events in the Iliad, and Oedipus realizes the futility of attempting to change his fate. The fatalistic approach of the Greek texts stems from the belief that the ages of man are in a decline, from the golden age down to the iron age of Homer. This belief in the general decline of humanity is echoed later in Dante’s Inferno, where the Old Man of Crete is composed of the same metals, but this time with a clay foot.

As you read, consider the following questions:

• Using the list of traits above, which traits apply to each epic hero in the texts? • What is similar and/or different about heroes such as Gilgamesh, Achilles, Hector, and Odysseus?

Image 1.6: Mesopotamia in 2nd Millennium BC | A map depicting the cities of ancient Mesopotamia.

Author: User “Joeyhewitt” Source: Wikimedia Commons License: CC BY-SA 2.5

Middle East, Near East, Greece

Image 1.2: City of Uruk | A basic map of Uruk with notes on the city’s boundaries.

Author: Lamassu Design Source: Wikimedia Commons License: CC BY-SA 3.0

Image 1.3: Eanna District of Uruk | A map of Uruk’s Eanna District, with its buildings and notes.

Author: Lamassu Design Source: Wikimedia Commons License: CC BY-SA 3.0

Image 1.4: Anu District of Uruk | A map of Uruk’s Anu District, with its buildings and notes.

Author: Lamassu Design Source: Wikimedia Commons License: CC BY-SA 3.0

Image 1.5: Uruk in 2008 | An aerial view of the dig site at Warka in Iraq.

Author: SAC Andy Holmes (RAF) Source: Wikimedia Commons License: Open Government License (OGL)

Compact Anthology of World Literature

4

• How do the characters view the gods, and how do the gods treat humans? • What do we learn about what each society considers proper or improper behavior, again based on the text

itself ? • Is family love or romantic love more important in the text, and why?

Written by Laura J. Getty

HEBrEw BIBLE, “GEnESIS” AnD “ExoDUS”

Written version compiled between approximately 1000-500 B.C.E. Hebrew literature

The Hebrew Bible …

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