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Please prepare a response to each of the attached documents for total of 2 responses. The responses need to be at least 150 words each. The responses should be as if you are talking directly to the person.

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The four factors of emergency management can be compared together as collective topics in preparation of the possibility of an emergency. Breaking these four factors down further, we can see how they differ from one another by focusing on different dimensions that could occur whether it be an emergency or daily routine.

Mitigation is focusing on how to reduce a likely hazard or it’s consequence (Coppola, P.224). 

Preparedness is focusing on taking action before the event of an emergency. This could be skills such as CPR/AED, or response evacuation routes. The overall goal of this factor is to minimize response time and create an effective recovery (Coppola, P. 275).

Response focuses on taking action towards prevention of loss of life, injury, and damages. This factor is conducted prior to, during, and after an emergency event (Coppola, P. 321).

Recovery focuses on rebuilding, repairing, and regaining what was once there whether that be production, cash flow, etc. (Coppola, P.405).

All four of these factors have a proactive focus to minimize the amount of damage, time, or hazards to ensure business continuity and security. The difference is the focus of each factor as I stated above which can be seen now that they have been broken down into their roles. Although they all have different focuses, the action is taken prior to an emergency which is where the proactive mindset comes into play. These four factors are meant to prevent as much as possible while planning as much as possible for any event.



One of the best entities I know of and have worked for that uses this type of planning is FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency). Working for FEMA during the recovery of Rita and Katrina, not only did I witness how they attacked a situation, I was also privy to how thye identified deficiencies within the organization. 

            One of FEMA’s best tools is “Mitigation”, after Rita and Katrina, FEMA really pushed for education on situations and what they and the community could do to better prepare themselves for another event. How could they work with local law enforcement to limit not only crime, but to serve those in need. Because of Rita and Katrina, FEMA was able to develop long term strategies to help communities affected by disasters even in the harshest of places. So, to sum this up, “Mitigation” the basically the future planning, developing ideas from previous events to help better be proactive when it comes to predicting what future events that might come about when it comes to threats and also natural events. 

            As a contractor and someone who lived in the middle east for over 10 years, “Preparedness” was something that was beaten into our mindset. “Preparedness” is about understanding your environment and looking at what possible threats might develop. Something like being in a Consulate in the middle east when it’s the anniversary of 9/11. Not only did we have to plan and be prepared for it, but months of thought went into strategies if we were attacked and how we could extract from that location or if we even needed to be there at all during that time. Being prepared is all about building upon a plan to increase your odds of survival. Preparedness is about developing emergency plans, identifying threats, educating yourself and your peers, practicing scenarios for most possible events, and most importantly getting the required training to assist with casualties. 

            “Response” can bring a plan together or pull one apart. Response is all about doing what has been practiced and logging how it could have been better. As with every aspect of Emergency Response, “Response” is a very hard one to predict, because we also have to understand part of human nature that the is the “Flight or Fight” response. We can practice all we want, but when in response mode, things can get very foggy and some might also regress back to what their body is most comfortable with. Part of response is trying to keep from getting tunnel vision, forcing yourself to see the big picture and doing what was prepared for. Response is all about sticking to a plan and following through, this might be a environmental event or a man-made threat, either way, without Mitigating the threat, preparing for the threat, you won’t be able to respond to the threat and that in itself can cause loss of life.  

            In order to keep this process from becoming stagnant, the “Recovery” stage is a must. Part of our recovery stage when I was overseas was called an AAR (After Actions Report), after every mission or event all personal involved in the event would come to a briefing room and talk about how the events unfolded, their part in the event and how they could improve on their actions during the event. This was a necessary process because Emergency Management has to be thought of as a living event. Its always changing and something can always be improved upon. Recovery was one of the key elements that helped the DOS (Department of State) analyze the events on September 11, 2012 in Benghazi. After the DOS looked at every angle of that event, they realized they had been ill prepared for a very primitive weapon, and that was fire. After reviewing the footage, it was clear fire had been a huge factor as far as breaching the building. From that discovery the DOS now trains a course to all their agents called “Fire as a Weapon”. Recovery is about pulling all the information together and analyzing it and figuring out how to increase the odds of success and also becoming more efficient. 

Emergency management can be broken down much further, but these four elements are a foundation to start any situation the correct way. As a manager, emergency management has to be taken seriously and everyone needs to be onboard with practicing it.   

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