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Guided Response: Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts in a substantive manner. Include examples, applications, and/or relationships between product and process design. Provide suggestions and alternatives to your classmates. Include references.

Process Selection: Product Design and Capacity

MELISSA’S POST:

According to Vonderembse and White, process selection includes evaluation of the most appropriate method of completing a task and includes both technical and volume decisions (2013, sec. 7.3). Once the process for manufacture is established, the company will need to ensure that the facilities, equipment and raw materials are available in sufficient quantities for the desired process.

Generally, these three processes are created, reviewed and tested concurrently, making adjustments as necessary. Product design leads with engineers creating the requested product and ensuring that the product functions as desired. All characteristics and features are added and tested to ensure functionality.

Process selection involves designing the manufacturing process. The physical actions and needed inputs are determined. In some cases, determinations of a standard automated process or specialized process are reviewed in the decision making process.

Capacity determination is limited by consumer desire for the product and facilities to produce the finished good. Demand must be sufficient to justify the company creating the product, not only do they need to make a profit on the sale of merchandise, but they must be able to rationalize any capital expenditures needed to bring their facilities into readiness for the manufacturing process.

References Vonderembse, M. A., & White, G. P. (2013). Operations management [Electronic version].  Retrieved from https://content.ashford.ed

FEDERICO’S POST:

Process Selection: Product Design and Capacity

          A process can be explained as a series of actions or events performed to make a particular product or service. But before an operational process can be defined, a product or service must be designed, and its demand must be established. According to Vonderembse & White (2013), “Product design, capacity, and process selection are decisions that should be considered simultaneously” (chap. 7.3). In fact, there is a circular relationship between those three factors. Product designing specifies what should be produced. Those specifications generate customers’ demand for that product, which determines the organization’s amount of product required. Finally, such expected capacity will define the type of process selected to produce the goods or services desired. To complete the relationship circle, the technology used in the chosen operational process will, in turn, influence or upgrade the product’s design.

          Manufacturing companies, like steel mills, rely on design and process engineers to perform these management decisions. Design engineers receive the customer’s mechanical specifications of the desired steel grade, and they design the chemical composition needed to reach those requirements. Then, the process engineers consider the amount of steel to be purchased by the customer to select the best operational process, with the available technology in the company, to produce that steel grade to comply with the customer’s expectations.

          According to an article on the O’Reilly website (2021), “Product design decisions are strategic in nature. The features and characteristics of a product need to support the overall strategic direction of the company” (p. 1). This statement implies that product design decisions directly condition not only the operational process selected but also the type of production facilities, equipment, automation level, workers’ skills, and most importantly, the degree of quality.

References

Vonderembse, M. A., & White, G. P. (2013). Operations management. Bridgepoint Education.

O’Reilly Media. (2021). Operations Management: An Integrated Approach, 5th Edition.  https://www.oreilly.com/library/view/operations-management-an/9781118122679/ch3-sec039.html

 Monique Food Processing Company and Capacity

Guided Response: Respond to at least two of your classmates’ posts. Some ways could include alternate solutions or calculations, and/or by challenging classmates’ on scenarios of when it is best to “add” or when it is best to “reduce” capacity. Include examples and references.

ZACHARY’S POST:

Monique Food Processing Company produces light snacks that can be heated in a microwave. The following steps are included in the process: Steps Description Capacity 

(Units/Hour) 1 Prepare food                                        200  2 Measure and place in plastic pouch  175 3 Prepare cardboard box                       200 4 Insert pouch into box                         300 5 Shrink-wrap box                                  200

a. What is the system capacity, and which is the bottleneck department?

System capacity is the maximum level of output of goods or services that a given system can potentially produce over a given period. System capacity is the ability of the organization to produce a sufficient number of goods and services to meet the demands of customers. Most systems will operate at full capacity for extended periods, due to inefficiencies and other factors such as mechanical breakdown and unavailability of personnel. Capacity is measured in people served, meals prepared, or the ability to generate sales dollars.  The bottleneck the department reduces or restrict the flow of product through the production system and starves downstream departments

Production rate = number of units produced / amount of time Dept.                    Capacity        (Units/Hour)        Production rate Slack or Unused Capacity 1                             200                   175                                            25 2                             175                   175                                             0 3                             200                   125                                            25 4                             300                   300                                           125 5                             200                   100                                             25 Department 1 can deliver 200 units per hour to department 2, which can only use 175 units, department 2 restricts the capacity, this is where the bottleneck occurs because the process cannot move forward due to the problem. Thus, this is where sales are lost; too much capacity means that money have been invested in resources that are not really needed.

If department 2 has only 175 units to offer to department 3, which can accept 200 units but is lacking due to the bottleneck in department slack occurs in which will result in potential sales and market share lost because the process is not being maximized[ CITATION MAV13 \l 1033 ] .If departments 2 and 3 combine their inputs (375) units to be delivered to department 4, which can only accept (300) there is a surplus of 75 units and an additional bottleneck would occurs.

If department 4 has 300 units to be delivered to department 5, which can accept only 200 units bottlenecking occurs in here as well. Overall department 2 is the bottleneck department.

b. How much slack (unused capacity) is available in other departments?

Department 1 has unused capacity of 25 Department 3 has unused capacity of 75 Department 5 has unused capacity of 100

c. How much system capacity can be gained by adding capacity to the bottleneck? Adding capacity to a bottleneck department will increase the capacity of a system, thereby, bringing the capacity of the bottleneck department into balance with the other departments. Although, capacity decisions should be based on the best estimate of demand.

d. What are the key factors that determine when to add capacity? Capacity is a variable; factors that determine when to add capacity is related anticipated increases in demand for an extended period. The increase must be greater normal circumstances, which can be met by the other less expensive alternatives, such as better scheduling, and operating procedures, adding another shift or increasing overtime, better quality of raw materials as well as increasing employee motivation.

e. Why would an organization want to reduce its capacity? Organizations may reduce capacity due to a decrease in the demand or moving it to a different location with improved efficiency and newer technology. In addition, capacity may also be reduced due to competitive global environment and substitute products. Dept. Capacity 

(Units/Hour)      Production       rate         Slack or Used Capacity 1                             175               200                   25 2                             175               175                    0 3                             175               200                   25 4                             175               300                  125 5                             175               200                   25

What is the system capacity?

The system capacity is the maximum output created before the system bottlenecks, in this problem the system capacity is 175.How much slack (unused capacity) is available in other departments? Department 1 has unused capacity of 25 Department 2 has unused capacity of 0 Department 3 has unused capacity of 25 Department 4 has unused capacity of 125 Department 5 has unused capacity of 25

How much system capacity can be gained by adding capacity to the bottleneck? Adding capacity to the bottleneck department will cause an increase in unused capacity or slack of 25 units / hours. Therefore, the total amounts will become 200.

References

Vonderembse, M. A., & White, G. P. (2013).  Operations management  [Electronic version]. Retrieved from https://content.uagc.edu/

VINCENT’S POST:

What is the system capacity, and which is the bottleneck department?

Vonderembse & White describe the system capacity as “the ability of the organization to produce a sufficient number of goods and services to meet the demands of customers” (2013). System capacity can be viewed as man or machine hours required in order to maximize production output as efficiently as possible. The bottleneck within operations is the restriction within a product flow that also determines the system’s capacity. In the case of Monique Food Processing Company, the bottleneck occurs at step 2. Since step 2 has a capacity of 175 units, the system capacity is set at 175.

How much slack (unused capacity) is available in other departments?

In order to calculate slack, you must take the capacity from each department or step and subtract the volume being used. In the case of Monique Food Processing Company, the capacity is 175 units:

StepsDescriptionCapacityUnused Capacity
1Prepare Food200200 – 175 = 25
2Measure and place into plastic pouch175175 – 175 =0
3Prepare cardboard box200200 – 175 = 25
4Insert pouch into box300300 – 175 = 125
5Shrink-wrap box200200 – 175 = 25

How much system capacity can be gained by adding capacity to the bottleneck?

Since department 2 is the bottleneck, this is the step we would be adding capacity to. We would add 25 units to step 2, which would increase the system capacity from 175 to 200.

What are the key factors that determine when to add capacity? Why would an organization want to reduce its capacity?

A big key factor that decides when an organization would want to add capacity is money. If a company can make more money by adding capacity, it usually means the demand for the product is higher and the company is not currently meeting the needs of the customer. If reducing capacity can make or save money, it usually means that the production of the product is costing more to the company than what it is making by selling it to its consumers.

Vonderembse, M. A., & White, G. P. (2013).  Operations management  [Electronic version]. Retrieved from  https://content.ashford.edu/books/AUBUS644.13.2/sections/sec8.3?search=bottleneck#w100017

Discussion

Behavioral Health Accreditation Standards

· Please respond to at least two of your classmates with your responses being approximately 75-100 words in length. Ask at least one question in response to an original peer post that you would like the author to explore further.

AUDREY’S POST:

Part One: Standards

     There are many standards that an organization has to uphold when accredited. The first standard that I believe is very important is rights of the individual. Upholding the dignity of an individual residing in an organization include informed consent, being allowed to participate in decision making, receiving information, and provided services for protecting the rights of the individual (The Joint Commission, n.d.). This is important because regardless of where an individual is residing, whether it is a nursing home or inpatient mental health organization, patients have a right to their rights and having their dignity upheld. I also believe that life safety and emergency management are very important for any organization. Life safety refers to the continual maintenance of an organizations of a facilities safety procedures (i.e. fire alarms or emergency exits) (The Joint Commission, n.d.). Emergency management refers to an organizations emergency preparedness and their ability to keep everyone safe in case of an emergency (The Joint Commission, n.d.). Life safety and emergency management are important because it is necessary to have a plan in place and to know how to keep patients and employees safe at all times. It is also necessary to have plans and be prepared in case of an emergency.

Part Two: Accreditation

     According to Al-Sughayir, (2016), when an inpatient mental health facility is accredited the length of stay is reduced for patients and this is due to the quality of care that patients would not receive in a non-accredited facility (Al-Sughayir, 2016). When an organization is accredited the accrediting body for the organization ensures the organization is upheld to a higher standard and provides quality. Through this study it was determined that more and more people are beginning to trust an organization that is accredited versus an organization that is not accredited. Accreditation is making all the difference to consumers and organizations.

Reference

Al-Sughayir, M.A. (2016). Effect of accreditation on length of stay in psychiatric inpatients: Pre-post

     accreditation medical record comparison. International Journal of Mental Health Systems,10,1-5.

     https://doi.org/10.1186/s13033-016-0090-6 (Links to an external site.)

The Joint Commission. (n.d.). Guide to Joint Commission behavioral health care accreditation.

https://www.jointcommission.org/-/media/tjc/documents/accred-and-cert/bhc/bhc-guide-to-accreditation.pdf

JENNIFER’S POST:

A very important behavioral health accreditation standard that organizations must be sure to include at all levels is performance improvement.  Change is a constant within the healthcare field, so this particular standard is key in providing the best possible care to patients.  This updated standard is extremely critical for the success, quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of an organization because it is a systemic activity of identifying causes of procedural issues and implementing solutions to resolve such issues.  The ability to incorporate improvement strategies in its day-to-day operations contributes to the organizations’ achievements.  As of January 2022, performance improvement will focus on how well the organization designs its processes, measures its performance, assesses its performance, and improves its performance (The Joint Commission, n.d.).  This section pertains to setting priorities for improvement to high-volume, high-risk, or problem-prone processes and monitoring data collection for improvement possibilities in outcomes, clients treated, and quality of care.  The performance improvement standard will require leaders to establish a written plan that defines the processes that need improvement, identify any impacted stakeholders, define project goals and improvement actions, outline methods for measuring performances, analysis, and deficiencies, and observe and sustain improved processes.  Leadership will also compare internal data at least annually to identify levels of performance, patterns, trends, and variations and if planned improvements did not work, the leadership will act immediately (The Joint Commission, n.d.).  The performance improvement standard will aid behavioral health organizations in continuous study and adaptation of processes that increase the possibility of achieving desired outcomes and better meeting patients needs. 

According to Neuman & Ptak (2003), accreditation is becoming a dominant strategy for ensuring accountability and quality of delivered services.  Accreditation is definitely important to consumers because it represents that the organization earned the approval through a very comprehensive evaluation process securing a recognized standard of providing safe, high quality care (The Joint Commission, n.d.).  Consumers who desire the best should be meticulous in reviewing accreditations. 

Neuman, K. M., & Ptak, M. (2003). Managing Managed Care through Accreditation Standards. Social Work48(3), 384–391.  https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.1093/sw/48.3.384 (Links to an external site.)

The Joint Commission. (n.d.). Guide to Joint Commission behavioral health care accreditation. https://www.jointcommission.org/-/media/tjc/documents/accred-and-cert/bhc/bhc-guide-to-accreditation.pdf

Discussion – manager/employees

 You must respond at least two (2) times to your colleagues post.  Your follow-up (Second, Third Post) must be at least (150 words and contain at least two scholarly references

DEJA’S POST:1. Is it ever OK for a manager to be friends with their employees? Managers can (and should) be friendly with their employees. They should make conversation and get to know their team members. But they also need to set boundaries and ensure that the relationship stays professional. No matter how well you get along with employees, at the end of the day, you’re still their boss. Bosses can be friends, but they don’t have to be—and many great managers will choose to be a mentor over being a friend. But the best people managers understand what makes you tick, know what you care about at and outside of work, and push you to be your absolute best self. Like a long-time close friend who’s willing to call you on your BS, your manager’s job is to make you successful. They should be rooting for you when things are hard—and pushing you to never make things too easy. So maybe the best way to think of it is that you should be very friendly and care about one another personally, but not quite be “friends.” It’s a complex relationship! My personal working style depends somewhat on personal connection with others—including my boss. Luckily, my manager is on the same page, and we keep a more informal and casual relationship. Being as experienced as she is with branding, she knows exactly how to remain casual and friendly while still maintaining a strong leadership aura and reputation—it’s an art. We have the ability to switch from friendly conversation to serious business issues immediately; it’s a relationship we’ve built over time.2. Two of your employees come to you with a complaint about another one of your employees. You’ve never personally observed the behavior they are complaining about. Do you confront the employee? If so, do you mention the complaints?  If the two employees come to me with a complaint about another employee, I would most definitely monitor the plaintiff and the accused. If she is acting out there has to be a reason why. I would not approach her just because someone told me something about her. I would monitor and offer my open-door policy to everyone during a meeting. 

TOMEKA’S POST:

1. Is it ever OK for a manager to be friends with their employees?

If boundaries are established, it could work.  While in the work place, both parties should keep it professional and leave their personal feelings and lives outside of the office or workplace.  A major conflict may be the inability to say, “No”.  Most friends are comfortable with telling their friends “No” but not their supervisors.  So both parties have to be aware NOT to take advantage of their friendship or position.  Other conflicts may not come from the personal relationship itself but from others outside the friendship.  Team members may become jealous.  Assuming that the friend is being treated differently and may develop resentment that could create a negative work environment.  Managers being personal friends with the people they are leading is tricky but it’s not impossible. 

2. Two of your employees come to you with a complaint about another one of your employees. You’ve never personally observed the behavior they are complaining about. Do you confront the employee? If so, do you mention the complaints?

Yes, Absolutely.  The manager can address the tension without being an eye witness to the behavior.  I am a strong believer that problems are better dealt with at its onset.  Unresolved issues lead to a toxic work environment.  Many people ignore the warning signs hoping that the problem will go away without having to address it.  It never does, it’s just manifest and grows… creating a bigger issue later.  Address the issue regardless how small.

References

https://thriveglobal.com/stories/friends-with-boss-healthy-relationship-work-advice/ (Links to an external site.)

https://www.forbes.com/sites/glennllopis/2014/11/28/4-ways-leaders-effectively-manage-employee-conflict/?sh=4d95d2085e15

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