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1. Why did evolution favor glucose as the blood sugar, rather than other sugars (e.g., galactose, fructose, or sucrose)?

2. Explain the metabolic origin of acidosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

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3. Explain the different roles of the pentose phosphate pathway in erythrocytes and nucleated cells.

4. Explain the origin of drug-induced hemolytic anemia in persons with G6PD deficiency

Lesson Evaluation

1. Which of the following reagents is used in Sanger sequencing?

a. Ribonucleotides

b. Dideoxyribonucleotides

c. Probes

d. Agarose gels

2. Chain termination sequencing autoradiograms are read from

a. the top to the bottom.

b. the bottom to the top.

c. left to right across the lanes.

d. right to left across the lanes.

3. If the dNTP:ddNTP ratio is too low (too much ddNTP), then

a. very small (early terminated) fragments will be produced.

b. very large (unterminated) fragments will be produced.

c. bands of equal size will occur in every lane.

d. no bands will be observed.

4. Pyrosequencing is based on signal production from

a. the release of hydroxyl groups during DNA replication.

b. a change in the size of the extended primer.

c. the exonuclease activity of Taq polymerase.

d. the release of pyrophosphate during DNA replication.

5. Read, from 5′ to 3′, the first 15 bases of the sequence in the gel on the right in Figure 9.7 in Chapter 9 of the Molecular Diagnostics text

6. After an automated dye primer sequencing run, the electropherogram displays consecutive peaks of the following colors:

red, black, red, black, green, green, blue, black, red, red, green, black, blue, blue, blue, black, green green

If the computer software displays the fluors from ddATP as green, ddCTP as blue, ddGTP as black, and ddTTP as red, what is the sequence of the region given?

7. A dideoxy sequencing electropherogram displays bright (high, wide) peaks of fluorescence, obliterating some of the sequencing peaks. What is the most likely cause of this observation? How might it be corrected?

8. In a pyrosequencing readout, the graph shows peaks of luminescence corresponding to the addition of the following nucleotides:

dA peak, dC peak, dT peak (double height), dG peak, dA peak

What is the sequence?

9. A variant detected by reversible dye terminator sequencing has a coverage of 1,589. What does this mean?

a. The variant was sequenced 1,589 times.

b. The variant was the 1,589th alteration detected.

c. Only 1,589 variants are present.

d. There is no significance of this number for analysis.

10. What is the purpose of using data from the 1000 Genomes Project in variant analysis?

a. Identification of coverage of all polymorphisms in the sample

b. Selection of genomic areas (SNP haplotypes) for analysis

c. Determination of the variant effect on protein amino acid sequence

d. Distinguishing mutations from frequently occurring polymorphisms

11. Name the five main histones. Which are included in nucleosomes?

12. Interpret the following histone marks:

H3K27Me3

H2AK119Ub

H3K4Me

H4R3Ac

13. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are effective anticancer agents. Does an HDACI open or close chromatin? What would be the effect on gene expression?

14. Histone modifications occur in response to which of the following?

a. Heat stress

b. Oxygen deprivation

c. Aerobic metabolism

d. All of these

15. Which cytosine is methylated by DNMT 1?

a. GGC

b. ACA

c. GCT

d. TCG

16. Indicate whether the following events would increase or decrease the expression of a gene:

a. CpG island hypermethylation

b. Recruitment of polycomb proteins by lnRNA

c. Histone acetylation

d. DNA hypomethylation

e. RISC

17. How does the complementarity of siRNA to its target mRNA differ from that of miRNA?

12. Name three functions of long ncRNA

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