An understanding of the factors surrounding women’s and men’s health, infections, and hematologic disorders can be critically important to disease diagnosis and treatment in these areas. This importance is magnified by the fact that some diseases and disorders manifest differently based on the sex of the patient.
Effective disease analysis often requires an understanding that goes beyond the human systems involved. The impact of patient characteristics, as well as racial and ethnic variables, can also have an important impact.
An understanding of the symptoms of alterations in systems based on these characteristics is a critical step in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. For APRNs, this understanding can also help educate patients and guide them through their treatment plans.
McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier.
· Chapter 24: Structure and Function of the Reproductive Systems (stop at Tests of reproductive function); Summary Review
· Chapter 25: Alterations of the Female Reproductive System (stop at Organ prolapse); pp. 787–788 (start at Impaired fertility) (stop at Disorders of the female breast); Summary Review
· Chapter 26: Alterations of the Male Reproductive System (stop at Hormone levels); Summary Review
· Chapter 27: Sexually Transmitted Infections, including Summary Review
· Chapter 28: Structure and Function of the Hematological System (stop at Clinical evaluation of the hematological system); Summary Review
· Chapter 29: Alterations of Erythrocytes, Platelets, and Hemostatic Function, including Summary Review
· Chapter 30: Alterations of Leukocyte and Lymphoid Function, including Summary Review
Low, N. & Broutet N. J. (2017). Sexually transmitted infections – Research priorities for new challenges. PLoS Medicine, (12), e1002481
Kessler, C. M. (2019). Immune thrombocytopenic purpura [LK1] (ITP). Retrieved from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/202158-overview
Nagalia, S. (2019). Pernicious anemia[LK1] . Retrieved from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/204930-overview#a3
Stauder, R., Valent, P., & Theurl, I. [LK1] (2019). Anemia at older age: Etiologies, clinical implications and management. Blood Journal, 131(5). Retrieved from http://www.bloodjournal.org/content/131/5/505?sso-checked=true
Credit Line: Anemia at older age: Etiologies, clinical implications and management by Stauder, R., Valent, P., & Theurl, I., in Blood Journal, Vol. 131/Issue 5. Copyright 2019 by American Society of Hematology. Reprinted by permission of American Society of Hematology via the Copyright Clearance Center.
A 32-year-old female presents to the ED with a chief complaint of fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and vaginal discharge. She states these symptoms started about 3 days ago, but she thought she had the flu. She has begun to have LLQ pain and notes bilateral lower back pain. She denies dysuria, foul-smelling urine, or frequency. States she is married and has sexual intercourse with her husband. PMH negative.
Labs: CBC-WBC 18, Hgb 16, Hct 44, Plat 325, Neuts & Lymphs, sed rate 46 mm/hr., C-reactive protein 67 mg/L CMP WNL
Vital signs T 103.2 F Pulse 120 Resp 22 and PaO2
99% on room air. Cardio-respiratory exam WNL with the exception of tachycardia but no murmurs, rubs, clicks, or gallops. Abdominal exam + for LLQ pain on deep palpation but no rebound or rigidity. Pelvic exam demonstrates copious foul-smelling green drainage with reddened cervix and + bilateral adnexal tenderness. + chandelier sign. Wet prep in ER + clue cells and gram stain in ER + gram negative diplococci.
In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario, explain the following:
· The factors that affect fertility (STDs).
· Why inflammatory markers rise in STD/PID.