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Running Head: PayneACMP9601B03

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PayneACMP9601B03

Purpose Statement

Amenia Payne

CMP-9601B Pre-Candidacy Prospectus Course

Week 3

Dr. Mary Dereshiwsky

October 31, 2021

Purpose Statement

The purpose of the qualitative study research is to understand the relationship between organizational strategies and appraisal systems. Each organization uses different strategic approaches to remain relevant and competitive (Subekti, 2021). The focus is on identifying whether the performance appraisal system should align with strategic management and how the stakeholders can achieve the objective (Zondo, 2018). The researcher’s goal is to aid managers in developing an appraisal system that would aid them in attaining organizational objectives while enhancing employee performance, attracting investors, and motivating labor capital.

I will use a qualitative exploratory study design method to advance the study. The aim is to understand the relationship between strategic management and performance appraisal that researchers could use in future studies. The variables in the study are strategic management and performance appraisal systems. The research will target managers and employees in American companies. The participants will give their views on the performance appraisal system and how they contribute to achieving organizational aims. In particular, the managers will state how they craft employee assessments within their organizations. The research will be conducted in California in the manufacturing industry. A total of 100 participants from five different companies will participate in the study. They will be selected randomly to participate in the study. Random sampling is preferable in the study because it creates an equal chance of selecting participants with different attributes (Reeger, 2019). I will collect data using questionnaires. Each participant will respond to thirty questions that will be sent via their emails. Employees’ questions will be different from managers’. Data will be analyzed using the thematic data analysis approach. The study’s findings will help organizations to create evaluation techniques that suit their organizational culture.

References

Reeger, A. (2019). Technically speaking: Why we use random sampling in reading research. Iowa Reading Research Center. Retrieved November 1, 2021, from https://iowareadingresearch.org/blog/technically-speaking-random-sampling#:~:text= Random%20 sampling%20 ensures%20that%20 results ,equal%20chance%20of%20being%20selected

Subekti, A. (2021). The Influence of Performance Appraisal System Towards Job Satisfaction, Motivation, As Well As Employee Performance. International Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting Research (IJEBAR), 5(2), 104–114

Zondo, R. W. D. (2018). The influence of a 360-degree performance appraisal on labor productivity in an automotive manufacturing organization. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 21(1). https://doi.org/10.4102/sajems.v21i1.2046

Running Head: PayneACMP9601B02

PayneACMP9601B02

Problem Statement

Amenia Payne

CMP-9601B Pre-Candidacy Prospectus Course

Week 2

Dr. Mary Dereshiwsky

October 24, 2021

Problem Statement

Introduction: Background

Performance appraisal systems are requisite for an organization’s success. Various organizations increase their business and topple their competitors through well-structured organizational appraisal systems. Previous researchers have delved into the field and published notable knowledge on appraisal systems. (Baird et al., 2020) researched employee performance empowerment, performance appraisal quality, and performance. The researchers found that there is a need for the establishment of employee empowerment programs and improving the quality of appraisal systems. However, the researchers did not detail how the quality of the appraisal system should be enhanced to empower the employees.

More research was conducted by (Zondo, 2018) to study the influence of 360-degree appraisal systems on labor productivity in the automobile industry in South Africa. The study found out that implementing a 360-degree appraisal system had no significant impacts on labor productivity at the company and only influenced investment opportunities. The researcher however did not examine how the appraisal system correlated with the strategic approach of the automobile industry and its long-term goals. Other researchers have also conducted studies to establish a relationship between appraisal systems and employee performance, job satisfaction, and motivation. In particular, (Subekti, 2021) ventured into the research to determine the relationship between appraisal and other organizational factors. He found out that the best employee appraisal systems bolstered employee motivation. On the other hand, the research found out that a poor appraisal system impacted employee motivation and consequently job satisfaction and performance. However, the researcher did not clarify how the appraisal systems were quantified. In other words, he did not state what characterized best and poor appraisal systems.

Problem Statement

A brief literature review reveals that there is little to no information on balancing between appraisal systems and organizational strategies. Most researchers in the field tend to focus on how appraisal systems boost organizational performance. Also, many scholars are interested in understanding how appraisal systems affect employee motivation, performance, and job satisfaction. Hence, the research paper will focus on determining the roles of organizational strategies when formulating appraisal systems. Failing to conduct this study will mean that the appraisal system continuously does not contribute to strategic management. A case study for analysis is the McDonald’s performance appraisal system (Goldsmith & Carter, 2010). Before 2003, McDonald had an informal and less structured performance evaluation system that did not reflect its strategies (Goldsmith & Carter, 2010). Consequently, it would not match its competitors or expand its business. The same challenge faces modern organizations. A lack of an appraisal system reflecting strategic approaches risks the success of an organization, business expansion, and employee empowerment.

I will approach the research using the goal orientation theory of performance appraisal. The theory acknowledges the fact that people strive to achieve set goals, obtain new skills and improve their competencies (Garavaglia-McGann, 2019). The theory is vital in explaining employers’ approaches to appraisal systems. The goal orientation theory will provide employees with a clear focus on the company. They will dedicate their efforts towards enabling their organizations to achieve their strategies.

References

Baird, K., Tung, A., & Su, S. (2020). Employee empowerment, performance appraisal quality and performance. Journal of Management Control31(4), 451–474. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00187-020-00307-y

Garavaglia-McGann, N. (2019). What are the effects of performance appraisal on employees? PeopleGoal. Retrieved October 22, 2021, from https://www.peoplegoal.com/blog/effects-of-performance-appraisal-on-employees-the-empirical-evidence

Goldsmith, M., & Carter, L. (2010). Best practices in talent management how the world’s leading corporations manage, develop, and retain top talent. Jossey-Bass.

Subekti, A. (2021). The Influence of Performance Appraisal System Towards Job Satisfaction, Motivation, As Well As Employee Performance. International Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting Research (IJEBAR), 5(2), 104–114

Zondo, R. W. D. (2018). The influence of a 360-degree performance appraisal on labor productivity in an automotive manufacturing organization. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 21(1). https://doi.org/10.4102/sajems.v21i1.2046

Running Head: PayneACMP9601B01

PayneACMP9601B01

Annotated Bibliography: Employee Appraisal, Performance, and Motivation

Amenia Payne

CMP-9601B Pre-Candidacy Prospectus Course

Week 1

Dr. Mary Dereshiwsky

October 17, 2021

Part 1: Annotated Bibliography

Zondo, R. W. D. (2018). The influence of a 360-degree performance appraisal on labor productivity in an automotive manufacturing organization. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences21(1). https://doi.org/10.4102/sajems.v21i1.2046

The authors research the influence of a 360-degree performance appraisal on labor productivity in an automotive manufacturing organization. A 360-degree performance appraisal involves the evaluation of every person within an organization from the managers to their subordinates. The study was done in South Africa which was experiencing a decline in labor productivity. The authors restricted their research to a South African manufacturing company that embraced 360-appraisal performance. They considered the company fit for their research because it witnessed an improvement in labor productivity while many other companies were struggling. The assessment was done on spoilage, absenteeism, capital investment, and labor productivity. The authors compared how the employees and managers performed before and after the implementation of the 360-degree performance appraisal. The results showed that performance appraisal had no direct impact on labor productivity at the selected company. However, a holistic performance assessment at the company influenced capital investment opportunities that had an impact on labor productivity. Spoilage rates were also dependent on labor productivity improvement. The researcher concluded that comprehensive assessment strategies in businesses improve labor productivity. Organizations should design appropriate evaluation methods to bolster employee performance. This research is essential in explaining the appraisals on employee performance and motivation at the workplace.

Subekti, A. (2021). The Influence of Performance Appraisal System Towards Job Satisfaction, Motivation, As Well As Employee Performance. International Journal of Economics, Business and Accounting Research (IJEBAR)5(2), 104–114.

In the study, the author researched how performance assessment affected job satisfaction, employee performance, and satisfaction. He did both a literature review of the existing studies and carried out a qualitative study. The research participants were 140 employees from PT Pupuk Kaltim. The sample population was collected through the ladder sampling technique. Data analysis was done through Smart Partial Least Square. The study’s result showed that the appraisal system of employees has an impact on job satisfaction at the Pupuk Kaltim Company. A better employee performance appraisal system improved employee performance while the reverse was true. Further findings showed that the employee appraisal system impacted motivation at the workplace. Best employee appraisal system at the organization enhanced employee motivation. On the contrary, poor appraisal systems demotivated employees working at the company. Employee performance was not affected by the type of appraisal system. Thus, the type of employee evaluation less affects employee performance. The research shows that the appraisal system in organizations has significant impacts on organizational success since they determine satisfaction and motivation. This study will be included in the research because it is current and contains current knowledge in business administration. Its findings will be used to answer the question of the impact of appraisals on employee performance and motivation in organizations.

Ahmad, D. I., Danish, D. R., Ali, S. A., Ali, H. F., & Humayon, D. A. (2018). Comparative study of the banking industry based on appraisal system, rewards, and employee performance. SISENSE Journal of Management2(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.33215/sjom.v2i1.64

This article was published in 2019 and has current knowledge on appraisal systems. The authors conducted a comparative study of the banking industry based on appraisal system rewards and employee performance. The research aimed to examine the influence of the appraisal system on the performance of bank employees, to determine the relationship between reward and performance and examine the impacts of job satisfaction on employee performance. They did a literature review of the existing studies and quantitative studies in Lahore and Kasur in Pakistan. A total of 250 questionnaires were sent to the participants and 222 questionnaires received feedback. The findings showed that appraisal negatively correlated with employee performance. Organizations adopting appraisals to evaluate employees did not have high labor productivity. One of the reasons why the appraisal system did not lead to high performance in the bank is that managers did not properly adhere to appraisal policies. Besides employee performance, the results showed that the reward system had a positive impact on employee performance. Hence, employees performed better in organizations that rewarded top performers. Nevertheless, the authors suggest that managers should distribute rewards effectively across the organizations to avoid demotivating some employees. The study will be useful in explaining how a lack of proper appraisal systems may hurt employee performance in organizations.

Imran, M., Haque, A. U., & Rębilas, R. (2018). Performance appraisal politics and employees’ performance in distinctive economies. Polish Journal of Management Studies18(2), 135–150. https://doi.org/10.17512/pjms.2018.18.2.11

The research focused on performance appraisal systems politics and employee performance in distinctive economies. The study’s setting was in Fire Fighter services in Canada, Malaysia, and Pakistan. The authors did a literature review to establish the background of appraisal and appraisal politics and conducted a quantitative study to determine the effects of organizational culture on employee performance. Data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires from 450 respondents. Each country was represented by 150 respondents. Participants were selected from a sample of 750 students through purposive sampling. The results from data analysis showed that there was a negative correlation between appraisal politics and employee performance among the fire-fighting employees. Organizations that experienced appraisal politics had poor employee performance. Therefore, an increase in appraisal performance will decrease the effectiveness of Rescue Departments. Appraisal politics result from exclusion during decision-making when formulating performance assessment plans. Also, a lack of transparency in conducting employee evaluations results in politics. I will use the article in the upcoming study to show how organizations should formulate performance appraisals. Though employee evaluation is a prerequisite in improving performance, wrongful approaches could hurt the goal of employees by lowering performance. Moreover, the study will show why inclusive decision-making is the mainstay of successful organizations.

Al-Jedaia, Y., & Mehrez, A. (2020). The effect of performance appraisal on job performance in the governmental sector: The mediating role of motivation. Management Science Letters, 2077–2088. https://doi.org/10.5267/j.msl.2020.2.003

The research delved into the impact appraisal on employee performance with motivation as the mediating factor in the government sector in Qatar. Organizations use performance appraisal to enhance effectiveness in their organizations. Also, performance appraisal could act as a motivation tool that enhances employee performance when correctly used. The authors conducted a literature review to determine the existing knowledge on employee appraisal. The literature review also assisted the authors to unravel the purpose of performance appraisal, performance appraisal criteria, and leadership and appraisal system. The authors adopted a qualitative study approach to answering the gaps identified in the literature. A descriptive research design in a survey form was used to actualize the study. 294 participants were included in the research. The results showed that some appraisal factors impacted employee motivation in organizations. Among the variables that affected employee motivation were performance appraisal purpose (PAP) and performance appraisal evaluation (PAE) methods. On the contrary, performance appraisal leadership (PAL) and performance appraisal criteria (PAC) had no impacts on employee motivation. These results direct organizations on the areas they should focus on when conducting a performance appraisal. Emphasis should be on PAP and PAE instead of PAC and PAL. The study will be essential in explaining why some performance appraisal does not work in organizations.

Part 2: The Topic to Explore

The researchers have focused extensively on appraisal performance and how it affects employee motivation and performance. I intend to research the relationship between leadership style and performance appraisal.

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