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My topic is The negativity of Phones 

Rubric for Argumentative Essay

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Times New Roman (12 point font) 1 3 5

Third Person Point of View 1 3 5

Smooth Transition Words 1 3 5

Adjective Clauses 1 3 5

Background Information 1 3 5

Comparative Form 1 3 5

Parallel Form 1 3 5

3 sources (all scholarly) 1 3 5

5-7 pages 1 3 5

Reference Page 1 3 5

Cover Page 1 3 5

Correct Verb Tense 1 3 5

Modals 1 3 5

Abstract 1 3 5

Counterargument 1 3 5

Argumentative Writing

Anca T-Hummel

NBCT-AYA/ELA

[email protected]

Joanna Nichols

I.L. English

[email protected]

ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY

The argumentative essay

is a genre of writing that requires you to:

1. investigate a topic;

2. collect, generate, and evaluate evidence; and

3. establish a position on the topic in a concise manner.

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Everyday Life Example

When we argue:

Bob: That was a lame movie!

Suzy: Why?

Bob: The special effects were bad. The monsters were obviously fake.

Suzy: I thought the movie was good because the acting was believable.

Bob’s bad response: You are an idiot.

Bob’s good response: Yes the acting was good but the horrible special effects were too distracting and caused some awkward moments.

Claim

Evidence

Counterclaim

Refutation

PERSUASION versus ARGUMENTATION

Persuasion: The action or fact of persuading someone or of being persuaded to do or believe something.

Argumentation: The process of establishing a claim and then proving it with the use of logical reasoning, examples, and research.

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Difference between

Persuasive and Argumentative Essay

A persuasive essay

May make a claim based on opinion

May not take opposing ideas into account

Persuades by appealing to the audience’s emotion or by relying on the character or credentials of the writer

Emotion-based

An argumentative essay

Makes claims based on factual evidence (research)

Makes counterclaims – the author takes opposing views into account.

Neutralizes or “defeats” serious opposing ideas

Convinces audience through the merit and rationality of the claim and proofs offered

Logic-based

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Elements of Argumentation

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Argument/Claim

An argument states a claim and supports it with reasons and evidence from sources.

Arguing your side makes you the proponent.

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Counterargument/Counterclaim

An argument that stands in opposition to your argument/claim. The counterargument is your opponent’s (the other side’s) argument that tries to explains why you are wrong.

Elements of Argumentation

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Refutation

Simply disproving an opposing argument. It is an important skill because it is how a writer successfully convinces the audience of the validity of his/her own argument.

Elements of Argumentation

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The Rhetorical Triangle – remember me?

Don’t forget to incorporate elements of ethos, pathos, and logos.

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Guides an audience through your reasoning process

Offers a clear explanation of each argued point

Demonstrates the credibility of the writer

Why is Organization Important in Argument Writing?

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Organizing Your Argument

Title

Introduction

Thesis statement

Body Paragraphs

Constructing Topic Sentences

Building Main Points

Countering the Opposition

Conclusion

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Introduces the topic of discussion to the audience

Generates reader interest in the argument

Title: Why You Need One

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Try to grab attention by:

offering a provocative image

picking up on words or examples offered in the body or conclusion of the paper

asking a question

Avoid titles that are too general or lack character

Creating a Title

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What is an Introduction?

Acquaints the reader with the topic and purpose of the paper

Generates the audience’s interest in the topic

Offers a plan for the ensuing argument:

Introduction: Tell them what you’re going to tell them

Body: Tell them

Conclusion: Tell them what you told them

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background information

example-real or hypothetical

question

quotation

shocking statistics

striking image

Methods for Constructing an Introduction

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What is a Thesis Statement?

The MOST IMPORTANT SENTENCE in your paper

Lets the reader know the main idea of the paper

Answers the question: “What am I trying to prove?”

Not a factual statement, but a claim that has to be proven throughout the paper

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Thesis Practice

Which thesis statement is the most effective for an argument about the need for V-chips in television sets?

Parents, often too busy to watch television shows with their families, can monitor their children’s viewing habits with the aid of the V-chip.

To help parents monitor their children’s viewing habits, the V-chip should be a required feature for television sets sold in the U.S.

This paper will describe a V-chip and examine the uses of the V-chip in American-made television sets.

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Body paragraphs build upon the claims made in the introductory paragraph(s).

Organize with the use of topic sentences that illustrate the main idea of each paragraph.

Offering a brief explanation of the history or recent developments of topic within the early body paragraphs can help the audience to become familiarized with your topic and the complexity of the issue.

Body Paragraphs and Topic Sentences

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Paragraphs may be ordered in several ways, depending upon the topic and purpose of your argument:

General to specific information

Most important point to least important point

Weakest claim to strongest claim

Body Paragraphs

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Offering a Counterargument

Addressing the claims of the opposition is an important component in building a convincing argument.

It demonstrates your credibility as a writer – you have researched multiple sides of the argument and have come to an informed decision.

It shows you have considered other points of view – that other points of view are valid and reasonable.

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Effective Counterarguments

Consider your audience when you address the counterargument.

Conceding to some of your opposition’s concerns can demonstrate respect for their opinions.

Remain tactful yet firm.

Using rude or deprecating language can cause your audience to reject your position without carefully considering your claims.

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Counterarguments may be located at various locations within your body paragraphs.

You may choose to:

build each of your main points as a contrast to oppositional claims.

offer a counterargument after you have articulated your main claims.

Placement of a Counterargument

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Organizing Ideas into an Outline

moving beyond the 5-paragraph essay

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Research in Body Paragraphs

Researched material can aid you in proving the claims of your argument and disproving oppositional claims.

Be sure to use your research to support the claims made in your topic sentences – make your research work to prove your argument.

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Conclusion

Your conclusion should reemphasize the main points made in your paper.

You may choose to reiterate a call to action or speculate on the future of your topic, when appropriate.

Avoid raising new claims in your conclusion.

Introduction: Tell them what you’re going to tell them

Body: Tell them

Conclusion: Tell them what you told them

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Recap: Organizing Your Argument

Title

Introduction

Thesis statement

Body Paragraphs

Constructing Topic Sentences

Building Main Points

Countering the Opposition

Conclusion

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Key Terms to Learn

1. a person who disagrees with something and speaks against it

2. the act or process of forming reasons, drawing conclusions, and applying them to a case in discussion

3. point or statement that supports one’s ideas and/or thesis

4. point or statement in opposition to the argument being made in a written document or speech

5. the process of discrediting the arguments that oppose your thesis statement

6. someone who argues in favor of something; advocate

Argumentation ___

Refutation _____

Proponent _____

Opponent _____

Counter Argument (CON) ____

Pro Argument (PRO) _____

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Check the web site: http://owl.english.purdue.edu

for further info.

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