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Week 10 Worksheet

1. Gina Lombroso-Ferrero (who represents the Modern or Positive school) gives credit to Beccaria but points out that she believes in something quite different. According to her, what mistake(s) does Beccaria (and other Classical thinkers) make about the understanding of the criminal?

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2. Looking at Jacob Riis’s How the Other Half Lives, do you think he believes the Lombroso-Ferrero and others in the Modern or Positive school? Why or why not?

3. How did tenements foster crime, according to Riis? Give specific examples.

4. In Chapter 15 (XV), which is pg. 201 in the electronic version, Riis tells the plight of children. Why does Riis place so much emphasis on the children in tenements and poverty? How does his belief reflect his ideas of crime and criminals?

5. Look at the photographs in Riis’s book. While some were staged by Riis, what do these photos have in common? Why were they so powerful in changing people’s minds about crime and poverty.

Week 10 Overview.html

Week 10: New Criminal Thought (Continued)  

In this module…

This week will look at the changing attitudes regarding poverty, crime, and how people identified the origins of criminal behavior (were they born or was it society?) 

The Progressive Era (roughly 1890s–1920s), much like the Enlightenment, spurred new thinkers, scientists, and social activists. The period is also marked by the desire to “scientifically manage” people/government/politics. Creating order out of disorder. 

The study of crime was especially suited to the Progressive Era, but in some ways contradictory. Activists started linking poverty to criminal behavior, but at the same time the “study” of Eugenics became a favorite excuse for crime. 

You’ll be reading excerpts from Jacob Riis’ foundational study of poverty in New York (1924) that points to the price of poverty and the cause of crime.  From Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives 

Assignments At A Glance

Weekly Lectures/Readings  
  • Power Point Presentation 
  • Gina Lombroso-Ferrero, Criminal Man: According to the Classification of Cesare Lombroso 
  • Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives 
Assignments 
  • Listen to Lecture on VoiceThread – Take Notes 
  • Read Lombroso-Ferrero article (think of it as a primary source) 
  • Read Chapters 1 and 15 (numbered in Roman numerals XV) Think of this as a primary source also. 
  • Worksheet #10 

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RACE AND ETHNICITY

RACE AND ETHNICITY 2  With more than seven billion people on the planet, the world offers a

fascinating array of human characteristics. Race refers to the inherited physical characteristics that distinguish one group from another. These distinguishing characteristics include a variety of complexions, colors, and shapes. Although there have been significant strides in the understanding of race and racial equality, two myths about race are still common.  It is a reality in the sense that humans come in different colors

and shapes.  It is a myth because there are no pure races; what we call

“races” are social classifications, not biological categories. The mapping of the human genome shows that humans are strikingly homogenous.

RACE AND ETHNICITY 3

 The classification of race is complex. Some scientists have classified humans into two “races,” while others have found as many as two thousand.  It is a myth that any race is superior to others. Throughout history

are examples of this myth being put into practice. For example, the Holocaust, the massacre in Rwanda, and the “ethnic cleansing” in Bosnia. Genocide—the attempt to destroy a group of people because of their presumed race or ethnicity—remains in the world.  The myth of race makes a difference for social life because people

believe these ideas are real and they act on their beliefs.

RACE AND ETHNICITY 4

 Race and ethnicity are often confused due to the cultural differences people see and the way they define race. The terms ethnicity and ethnic refer to cultural characteristics that distinguish a people.  Minority groups are people singled out for unequal treatment and

who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination.  They are not necessarily in the numerical minority. Sociologists refer to those

who do the discriminating as the dominant group; they have greater power, more privileges, and higher social status. The dominant group attributes its privileged position to its superiority, not to discrimination.  A group becomes a minority through expansion of political boundaries by

another group. Another way for a group to become a minority is by immigration into a territory, either voluntarily or involuntarily.

RACE AND ETHNICITY 5

 Some people feel an intense sense of ethnic identity while others feel very little.  An individual’s sense of ethnic identity is influenced by the relative size and

power of the ethnic group, its appearance, and the level of discrimination aimed at the group. If a group is relatively small, has little power, has a distinctive appearance, and is an object of discrimination, its members will have a heightened sense of ethnic identity.  Ethnic work refers to how ethnicity is constructed and includes enhancing

and maintaining a group’s distinctiveness or attempting to recover ethnic heritage. In the United States, millions of Americans are engaged in ethnic work, which has challenged the notion that our nation is a melting pot, with most groups quietly blending into a sort of ethnic stew.

PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION  Prejudice and discrimination exist in societies throughout the world.  Discrimination is unfair treatment directed toward someone. When based on

race, it is known as racism. It also can be based on many features such as weight, age, sex, sexual preference, disability, religion, or politics.  Prejudice is prejudging of some sort, usually in a negative way, and it is an

attitude.  Sociologists found that some people learned prejudice after association with

certain groups. Racism was not the cause for joining a racist group but the result of their membership in that group.  It has been found that prejudice against one racial-ethnic group leads to

prejudice against others.  People can learn to be prejudiced against their own groups by internalizing

the norms of the dominant group.  Psychologists found through the “Implicit Association Test” that we hold

biased perceptions of racial groups through the ethnic maps that we have learned in our cultures.

PREJUDICE AND DISCRIMINATION 2

 Sociologists distinguish between individual discrimination (negative treatment of one person by another) and institutional discrimination (negative treatment of a minority group that is built into society’s institutions).  Race-ethnicity is a significant factor in getting a mortgage or a car loan.

Researchers found that even when two mortgage applicants are identical in terms of credit histories, African Americans and Latinos are 60 percent more likely than whites to be rejected.  In terms of health care, researchers compared the age, sex, race, and income

of patients and found that whites are more likely than minorities to be given coronary bypass surgery or receive knee replacements.

THEORIES OF PREJUDICE

 Psychological perspectives  According to John Dollard, prejudice results from frustration; people unable

to strike out at the real source of their frustration find scapegoats to unfairly blame.  According to Theodor Adorno, highly prejudiced people are insecure,

intolerant people who long for the firm boundaries established by strong authority; he called this complex of personality traits the authoritarian personality.  Subsequent studies have generally concluded that people who are older, less

educated, less intelligent, and from a lower social class are more likely to be authoritarian.

THEORIES OF PREJUDICE 2  Sociological perspectives  To functionalists, the social environment can be deliberately arranged to

generate either positive or negative feelings about people. Prejudice is functional in that it creates in-group solidarity and out-group antagonism, but dysfunctional because it destroys human relationships. Functionalists do not justify what they discover but simply identify functions and dysfunctions of human action.  To conflict theorists, the ruling class systematically pits group against group;

by splitting workers along racial-ethnic lines they benefit, because solidarity among the workers is weakened. The higher unemployment rates of minorities create a reserve labor force from which owners can draw when they need to expand production temporarily. The existence of the reserve labor force is a constant threat to white workers, who modify their demands rather than lose their jobs to unemployment. Racial-ethnic divisions at work are also encouraged and exploited. This weakens workers’ bargaining power.

THEORIES OF PREJUDICE 3

 Sociological perspectives  To symbolic interactionists, the labels people learn color their

perceptions, leading to selective perception—they see certain things and are blind to others. Racial and ethnic labels are especially powerful because they are shorthand for emotionally laden stereotypes. Symbolic interactionists stress that people learn prejudices in interactions with others. These stereotypes not only justify prejudice and discrimination, but they also lead to a self- fulfilling prophecy—stereotypical behavior in those who are stereotyped.

GLOBAL PATTERNS  Genocide is the actual or attempted systematic annihilation of a race or ethnic

group that is labeled as less than fully human. The Holocaust and the U.S. government’s treatment of Native Americans are examples. Labels that dehumanize others help people compartmentalize; they can separate their acts from their sense of being good and moral people.  Population transfer is the involuntary movement of a minority group. Indirect

transfer involves making life so unbearable that members of a minority then leave; direct transfer involves forced expulsion. A combination of genocide and population transfer occurred in Bosnia, in the former Yugoslavia, as Serbs engaged in the wholesale slaughter of Muslims and Croats, with survivors forced to flee the area.  Internal colonialism is a society’s policy of exploiting a minority by using social

institutions to deny it access to full benefits. Slavery is an extreme example as well as South Africa’s system of apartheid.

GLOBAL PATTERNS 2  Segregation is the formal separation of groups that accompanies

internal colonialism. Dominant groups maintain social distance from minorities yet still exploit their labor.  Assimilation is the process by which a minority is absorbed into the

mainstream. Forced assimilation occurs when the dominant group prohibits the minority from using its own religion, language, or customs. Permissive assimilation is when the minority adopts the dominant group’s patterns in its own way and/or at its own speed.  Multiculturalism, also called pluralism, permits or encourages ethnic

variation. Switzerland is an excellent example of multiculturalism. The French, Italians, Germans, and Romansh have kept their own languages and live in political and economic unity.

RACE AND ETHNIC RELATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES

 Racial and ethnic terms that are used in the United States are controversial.  White Americans comprise 61 percent of the U.S. population,

with racial and ethnic minorities comprising the other 36 percent. About 3 percent claim membership in two or more racial-ethnic groups.  Minority groups tend to be clustered in areas, so the distribution

of dominant and minority groups among the states rarely comes close to the national average.

RACE AND ETHNIC RELATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES 2

 White Anglo-Saxon Protestants (WASPs) established the basic social institutions in the United States when they settled the original colonies.  WASPs were very ethnocentric and viewed immigrants from other

European countries as inferior. Subsequent immigrants were expected to speak English and adopt other Anglo-Saxon ways of life.  White ethnics are white immigrants to the United States whose culture

differs from that of WASPs. They include the Irish, Germans, Poles, Jews, and Italians. They were initially discriminated against by WASPs, who felt that something was wrong with people with different customs.  The institutional and cultural dominance of Western Europeans set the

stage for current ethnic relations.

RACE AND ETHNIC RELATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES 3

 The terms Latino and Hispanic do not refer to a race, but to different ethnic groups. Latinos may be black, white, or Native American.  Today, Latinos are the largest minority group in the United States. About 32

million trace their origins to Mexico, 8 million to Central and South America, 5 million to Puerto Rico, and 2 million to Cuba.  While most are legal residents, about 9 million have entered the country

illegally.  One reaction to massive unauthorized entry into the United States has been

welcoming by offering driving licenses or becoming “sanctuary cities.”  A second reaction is to prevent illegal entry by checking entry and building a

wall. This became a campaign issue in the presidential race of 2016, and with President Trump its building has resumed.  Concentrated in six states (California, Texas, New York, Illinois, and Arizona),

Mexican immigrants are causing major demographic shifts.

RACE AND ETHNIC RELATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES 4

 The terms Latino and Hispanic do not refer to a race, but to different ethnic groups. Latinos may be black, white, or Native American.

 The Spanish language distinguishes them from other minorities; many Latinos cannot speak English or can only do so with difficulty. Some Anglos perceive the growing use of Spanish as a threat, have initiated an “English only” movement, and have succeeded in getting states to consider making English their official language.  Latino family incomes are 40 percent less than those of whites, and

Latinos are almost twice as likely as whites to be poor. On the other hand, one of every six Latino families has an income higher than $100,000 a year.  Latinos are the most likely to drop out of high school, and they are the

least likely to graduate. With each new edition of this book, the educational levels of Latinos are increasing.  Although political representation of Latinos is still small, the numbers are

increasing. Yet, divisions by national origin prevent political unity.

RACE AND ETHNIC RELATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES 5

 The terms Latino and Hispanic do not refer to a race, but to different ethnic groups. Latinos may be black, white, or Native American.

 The Spanish language distinguishes them from other minorities; many Latinos cannot speak English or can only do so with difficulty. Some Anglos perceive the growing use of Spanish as a threat, have initiated an “English only” movement, and have succeeded in getting states to consider making English their official language.  Latino family incomes are 40 percent less than those of whites, and Latinos

are almost twice as likely as whites to be poor. On the other hand, one of every six Latino families has an income higher than $100,000 a year.  Latinos are the most likely to drop out of high school, and they are the least

likely to graduate. With each new edition of this book, the educational levels of Latinos are increasing.  Although political representation of Latinos is still small, the numbers are

increasing. Yet, divisions by national origin prevent political unity.

RACE AND ETHNIC RELATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES 6

 African Americans face a legacy of racism.  After slavery was abolished, southern states passed Jim Crow laws to

segregate blacks and whites. In 1896, Plessy v. Ferguson allowed states to require “separate but equal” accommodations for blacks. Blacks were not permitted to vote in primaries until 1944, but then a law passed that restricted voting only to those who could read—which removed the right to vote for many African Americans. Not until 1954 did African Americans gain the legal right to attend the same public schools as whites.

 The 1964 Civil Rights Act and the 1965 Voting Rights Act heightened expectations for African Americans that better social conditions would follow these gains. Frustration over the pace of change led to urban riots and passage of the 1968 Civil Rights Act.

RACE AND ETHNIC RELATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES 7

 Since then, African Americans have made political and economic progress. For example, African Americans have increased their membership in the U.S. House of Representatives in the past thirty years, and their enrollment in colleges continues to increase. About half of all African American families make more than $40,000 a year. In 1989, L. Douglas Wilder was elected governor of Virginia. In 2006, Deval Patrick became governor of Massachusetts. In 2008, Barack Obama became president of the United States and was reelected in 2012.  Despite these gains, however, African Americans continue to lag behind in

politics, economics, and education. There are only two African American senators. Currently, African Americans average 57 percent of whites’ incomes, experience much more poverty, and are less likely to have a college education. One of every six African American families makes less than $15,000 a year.

RACE AND ETHNIC RELATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES 8

 According to William Wilson, social class (not race) is the major determinant of quality of life. The African American community today is composed of a middle class who took advantage of the opportunities created by civil rights legislation and advanced economically, living in good housing, having well-paid jobs, and sending their children to good schools, as well as a large group of poorly educated and unskilled African Americans who were left behind as opportunities for unskilled labor declined. They now find themselves living in poverty, facing violent crime and dead-end jobs, and sending their children to lesser schools.  Others argue that discrimination on the basis of race persists, despite gains

made by some African Americans. African Americans are still paid less than white Americans for the same job.  Racism still continues to be a part of life. Researchers found that resumes of

people with white sounding names received 50 percent more callbacks than those having blacker sounding names.

RACE AND ETHNIC RELATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES 9

 Asian Americans have long faced discrimination in the United States.

 Many people are grouped together as Asian Americans, although this encompasses many nations and different cultures that might not feel any commonalities.  Chinese immigrants were drawn here by the gold strikes in the West and the

need for unskilled workers to build the railroads. In 1882, Congress passed the Chinese Exclusion Act, suspending all Chinese immigration for 10 years.  When the Japanese arrived, they met spillover bigotry, a stereotype that

lumped all Asians together, depicting them negatively. After the attack on Pearl Harbor in World War II, hostilities toward Japanese Americans increased, with many being imprisoned in “relocation camps.”

RACE AND ETHNIC RELATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES 10

 Asian Americans have long faced discrimination in the United States.  On the average, Asian Americans have higher annual incomes and lower

unemployment rates than other racial-ethnic groups. Those most likely to be in poverty, though, come from Southeast Asia.  The success of Asian Americans can be traced to three factors: (1) a close

family life; (2) educational achievement; and (3) assimilation into the mainstream.  Asian American children are the most likely to grow up with two parents.

They have very high rates of college graduation. The high intermarriage rate of Asian Americans has enabled them to assimilate into mainstream culture.  Asian Americans are becoming more prominent in politics. Hawaii has

elected several Asian American governors and sent several Asian American senators to Washington. Gary Locke served as governor of Washington from 1997 to 2005. In 2008, Bobby Jindal of Louisiana became the first Indian American governor.

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 Due to the influence of old movie westerns, many Americans tend to hold stereotypes of Native Americans as uncivilized savages and as a single group of people subdivided into separate bands.  In reality, however, Native Americans represent a diverse group of people

with a variety of cultures and languages. Although originally numbering about 10 million, their numbers were reduced to a low of 250,000 due to a lack of immunity to European diseases and warfare. Today there are about 4 million Native Americans who speak 139 different languages.  At first, relations between European settlers and Native Americans were

peaceful. However, as the number of settlers increased, tension increased. Because they stood in the way of expansion, many were slaughtered. Government policy shifted to population transfer, with Native Americans confined to reservations.

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 Due to the influence of old movie westerns, many Americans tend to hold stereotypes of Native Americans as uncivilized savages and as a single group of people subdivided into separate bands.  Today, they are an invisible minority. One-third live in three

states: Oklahoma, California, and Arizona; most other Americans are hardly aware of them. They have the highest rates of suicide and the lowest life expectancy of any U.S. minority. These negative conditions are the result of Anglo domination.  In the 1960s, Native Americans won a series of legal victories that

restored their control over the land and their right to determine economic policy. Many Native Americans have opened businesses on their lands, ranging from industrial parks to casinos.

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 More than 250 tribes operate casinos, which provide a large amount of income and many jobs. They have also caused fights among tribes.  Some Native Americans embrace separatism, or the idea that

they are separate from the U.S. government.  Native Americans have formed national and regional

organizations, including cooperative organizations and intertribal councils.

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 Central to this country’s history, immigration and the fear of its consequences are once again issues facing the United States. The concern has been that “too many” immigrants will alter the character of the United States, undermining basic institutions and contributing to the breakdown of society.  There is fear that Spanish speakers will threaten the primacy of

the English language, that immigrants will take jobs away from native-born Americans, and that newer groups will gain political power at the expense of other minority groups.

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 Another central concern is the role of affirmative action. Liberals argue that this policy is the most direct way to level the playing field of economic opportunity, while conservatives believe that such practices result in reverse discrimination.  One of the most controversial rulings was Proposition 209. This amendment

to the California state constitution banned preferences for minorities and women in hiring, promotion, and college admission.  A ruling by the court in a case about the University of Michigan admission

process has continued to make the role of affirmative action a challenging topic.  Asian Americans brought a case came against Harvard claiming that they are

discriminated against in college admissions because they are so highly prepared for college—this case has not been settled yet.  Fisher v. University of Texas argued that providing help to those from low-

income homes, regardless of race-ethnicity, will provide college and access and upward social mobility to those in need.

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 Although problems continue to exist regarding race-ethnic relations, they have been greatly reduced.  For the United States to become a multicultural society, people must

respect differences and be willing to work together without any one group dominating others, and racial categories need to be seen as an irrelevant system of categorization.

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