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Please see the ppts and answer doc attached and respond.

Write 300 words on discussion and respond to two articles with 200 words each

1)Write 300 words for discussion with 3 peer reviewed references

Should serving others be placed at a higher moral level than serving oneself?  Discuss.

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2) Respond to two articles with 200 words each

Article 1

Ethical leadership

A leader can be ethical but unethical, depending on how she or he sees the world, and how her or his firm defines ethical conduct. A leader can be ethical because she or he has integrity in pursuing goals and principles, and not because she or he has knowledge or experience that motivates others to behave ethically. Ethical decisions include those involving the use of money, products, energy, or inactions. Decisions involving the use of human labor are inherently uncertain and often involve trade-offs between cost and quality, so it is important for companies to pay careful regard to the ethical implications of their decisions. A leader, then, has to know his/her people well. Only then can he/she give them what they want and that’s what makes a great leader. To know your people and truly care about them, one must get to know each of them individually (Lumpkin & Achen, 2018).

There are many ways that an individual can create an atmosphere where loyalty and commitment are shared. The first step in inspiring a group of people to work together is to establish and implement the common rules and standards of behavior and work together in the process of achieving a common goal. Leadership and management are two closely related and related activities. A good manager should be an able leader and a leader should be a good manager. All people, whether a leader or a manager, should always have the goal of ensuring that the success of their respective employees. A team is the most common way in which groups of people are brought together in order to achieve a common goal. It is essential that the team leader works to ensure that the members of the team collaborate and communicate with one another on a constant basis (Lumpkin & Achen, 2018).

References

Lumpkin, A., & Achen, R. M. (2018). Explicating the synergies of self‐determination theory, ethical leadership, servant leadership, and emotional intelligence. Journal of Leadership Studies12(1), 6-20.

Article 2

  Putting others first is the key to successful leadership. Where your health is neglected, now is the time to take an active part in the well-being of others. They want to be with you as they grow up. There must be people who want to share the life of a leader. These people will seek your advice. You will be successful when you grow up. If so, it’s natural to ask permission, copy, and respect those who provide it. Achieving both goals requires a clear understanding of your own needs and understanding of others. Leadership is about meeting the needs of one person, not the needs of another. “Encourage our partners to believe that we will never be satisfied with what we ask for” (Lumpkin & Achen, 2018).

There are several ways to be superior. It deserves it and it should end there. Over time, you will become a better leader. However, this simple fact often seems to be overlooked in discussions of psychological behavior. People always expect their own interests and growth to guide their moral choices. How do you make decisions that fit your organization’s needs? They agree that it has nothing to do with caring for the poor or alleviating suffering. The idea is simple (Lumpkin & Achen, 2018).

But they contradict the basic concept of selfishness. Their authenticity must be questioned. The more your requirements are met, the easier it will be to make the best decisions. Over time, you will become more successful in the world. So while selfishness can make moral decisions, selfishness must not be selfish. Self-denial almost certainly does not require self-sacrifice (Lumpkin & Achen, 2018).

morally. Hiring someone is better than an employee. It is better to serve others than to prepare everything because you are serving others. A manager’s job is to strengthen the environment for the benefit of others. Therefore, everyone is responsible. Leadership is the highest form of true leadership. Leading service for people. A leader’s role is to work as a leader to meet people’s needs for success and development. He does this by enriching people. In this way, leaders can encourage others to assume greater responsibility. Service management is no different. Unfortunately, moral values ​​are not a solid foundation. Morality is a set of rules that generally contributes to happiness. It is a moral process (Pessi, A. B. 2018).

This does not mean respecting the actions of others. This means that in the real world, sometimes you have to make a choice, you have to make a choice, you have to make a choice, and sometimes you have to make sacrifices to make each other happy. So in the real world we experience differences of opinion. It is a matter of morality, and above all it is better to sacrifice yourself.

References

Martela, F., & Pessi, A. B. (2018). Significant work is about self-realization and broader purpose: defining the key dimensions of meaningful work. Frontiers in psychology9, 363.

Lumpkin, A., & Achen, R. M. (2018). Explicating the synergies of self‐determination theory, ethical leadership, servant leadership, and emotional intelligence. Journal of Leadership Studies12(1), 6-20.

Chapter 6

Courage and Moral Leadership

6e

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objectives

Combine a rational approach to leadership with a concern for people and ethics

Understand how leaders set the ethical tone in organizations and recognize the distinction between ethical and unethical leadership

Recognize your own stage of moral development and ways to accelerate your moral maturation

2

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objectives

Know and use mechanisms that enhance an ethical organizational culture

Apply the principles of stewardship and servant leadership

Recognize courage in others and unlock your own potential to live and act courageously

3

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Ethical Climate in Business

Leaders face pressures that challenge their ability to do the right thing

Obstacles for leaders

Personal weakness and self-interest

Pressures to:

Cut costs and increase profits

Meet the demands of vendors or business partners and look successful

Please shareholders

4

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Leaders Set the Ethical Tone

Act as positive role models

Signal what matters by their behavior

Focus on employees, customers, and the greater good

Not paying attention to gaining benefits themselves

Honest with employees, partners, customers, vendors, and shareholders

5

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Leaders Set the Ethical Tone

Strive for fairness and honor agreements

Share the credit for successes and accept the blame when things go wrong

Speak up against acts they believe are wrong

6

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Acting Like a Moral Leader

Recognize and adhere to ethical values

Acknowledge the importance of human meaning, quality, and higher purpose

Encourage others to develop and use moral values and adhere to ethical standards of conduct

7

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 6.2 – How to Act Like a Moral Leader

8

Sources: Based on Linda Klebe Treviño, Laura Pincus Hartman, and Michael Brown, “Moral Person and Moral Manager: How Executives Develop a Reputation for Ethical Leadership,” California Management Review 42, no. 4 (Summer 2000), pp. 128–142; Christopher Hoenig, “Brave Hearts,” CIO (November 1, 2000), pp. 72–74; and Patricia Wallington, “Honestly?!” CIO (March 15, 2003), pp. 41–42

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Becoming a Moral Leader

Moral leadership: Distinguishing right from wrong and doing right

Seeking the just, honest, and good in the practice of leadership

Internal characteristic that influences a leader’s capacity to make moral choices is the individual’s level of moral development

9

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 6.4 – Three Levels of Personal Moral Development

10

Sources: Based on Lawrence Kohlberg, “Moral Stages and Moralization: The Cognitive-Developmental Approach,” in Moral Development and Behavior Theory, Research, and Social Issues, ed. Thomas Likona (Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976), 31–53; and Jill W. Graham, “Leadership, Moral Development, and Citizenship Behavior,” Business Ethics Quarterly 5, no. 1 (January 1995), 43–54

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Servant Leadership

Leader transcends self-interest to:

Serve the needs of others

Help others grow

Provide opportunities for others to gain materially and emotionally

Types

Authoritarian management

Participative management

Stewardship

11

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 6.5 – Changing Leader Focus from Self to Others

12

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Authoritarian Management

13

Leaders set the strategy and goals, as well as the methods and rewards for attaining them

Organizational stability and efficiency are paramount

Subordinates are given:

No voice in creating meaning and purpose for their work

No discretion as to how they perform their jobs

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Authoritarian Management

14

Emphasis on:

Tight top-down control

Employee standardization and specialization

Management by impersonal measurement and analysis

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Participative Management

15

Actively involves employees

Employee suggestion programs

Participation groups

Quality circles

Leaders determine purpose and goals, make final decisions, and decide rewards

Employees are not allowed to be true partners in the enterprise

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Participative Management

16

Employees are expected to:

Make suggestions for quality improvements

Act as team players

Take greater responsibility for their own jobs

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Stewardship

Belief that leaders are deeply accountable to others as well as to the organization

Without trying to control others, define meaning and purpose for others, or take care of others

17

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Principles for Stewardship

18

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Adopt a partnership mindset

Give decision-making power and the authority to act to those closest to the work and the customer

Tie rewards to contributions rather than formal positions

Expect core work teams to build the organization

The Servant Leader

19

Puts service before self-interest

Listens first to affirm others

Inspires trust by being trustworthy

Nourishes others and helps them become whole

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Courage

Mental and moral strength to engage in, persevere through, and withstand danger, difficulty, or fear

Accepting responsibility

Nonconformity

Pushing beyond the comfort zone

20

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Courage

Asking for what you want and saying what you think

Abilene paradox: Tendency to resist voicing their true thoughts or feelings in order to please others and avoid conflict

Fighting for what you believe

21

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

How Does Courage Apply to Moral Leadership

22

Applying courage to:

Be unconventional and do what is right

Step up and take responsibility

Balance:

Profit with people and self-interest with service

Control with stewardship

Act like a moral leader

Whistleblowing: Employee disclosure of illegal, immoral, or unethical practices in the organization

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Finding Personal Courage

23

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Believe in a higher purpose

Draw strength from others

Harness frustration and anger

Take small steps

Chapter 6

Courage and Moral Leadership

6e

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objectives

Combine a rational approach to leadership with a concern for people and ethics

Understand how leaders set the ethical tone in organizations and recognize the distinction between ethical and unethical leadership

Recognize your own stage of moral development and ways to accelerate your moral maturation

2

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Learning Objectives

Know and use mechanisms that enhance an ethical organizational culture

Apply the principles of stewardship and servant leadership

Recognize courage in others and unlock your own potential to live and act courageously

3

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Ethical Climate in Business

Leaders face pressures that challenge their ability to do the right thing

Obstacles for leaders

Personal weakness and self-interest

Pressures to:

Cut costs and increase profits

Meet the demands of vendors or business partners and look successful

Please shareholders

4

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Leaders Set the Ethical Tone

Act as positive role models

Signal what matters by their behavior

Focus on employees, customers, and the greater good

Not paying attention to gaining benefits themselves

Honest with employees, partners, customers, vendors, and shareholders

5

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Leaders Set the Ethical Tone

Strive for fairness and honor agreements

Share the credit for successes and accept the blame when things go wrong

Speak up against acts they believe are wrong

6

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Acting Like a Moral Leader

Recognize and adhere to ethical values

Acknowledge the importance of human meaning, quality, and higher purpose

Encourage others to develop and use moral values and adhere to ethical standards of conduct

7

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 6.2 – How to Act Like a Moral Leader

8

Sources: Based on Linda Klebe Treviño, Laura Pincus Hartman, and Michael Brown, “Moral Person and Moral Manager: How Executives Develop a Reputation for Ethical Leadership,” California Management Review 42, no. 4 (Summer 2000), pp. 128–142; Christopher Hoenig, “Brave Hearts,” CIO (November 1, 2000), pp. 72–74; and Patricia Wallington, “Honestly?!” CIO (March 15, 2003), pp. 41–42

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Becoming a Moral Leader

Moral leadership: Distinguishing right from wrong and doing right

Seeking the just, honest, and good in the practice of leadership

Internal characteristic that influences a leader’s capacity to make moral choices is the individual’s level of moral development

9

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 6.4 – Three Levels of Personal Moral Development

10

Sources: Based on Lawrence Kohlberg, “Moral Stages and Moralization: The Cognitive-Developmental Approach,” in Moral Development and Behavior Theory, Research, and Social Issues, ed. Thomas Likona (Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1976), 31–53; and Jill W. Graham, “Leadership, Moral Development, and Citizenship Behavior,” Business Ethics Quarterly 5, no. 1 (January 1995), 43–54

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Servant Leadership

Leader transcends self-interest to:

Serve the needs of others

Help others grow

Provide opportunities for others to gain materially and emotionally

Types

Authoritarian management

Participative management

Stewardship

11

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Exhibit 6.5 – Changing Leader Focus from Self to Others

12

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Authoritarian Management

13

Leaders set the strategy and goals, as well as the methods and rewards for attaining them

Organizational stability and efficiency are paramount

Subordinates are given:

No voice in creating meaning and purpose for their work

No discretion as to how they perform their jobs

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Authoritarian Management

14

Emphasis on:

Tight top-down control

Employee standardization and specialization

Management by impersonal measurement and analysis

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Participative Management

15

Actively involves employees

Employee suggestion programs

Participation groups

Quality circles

Leaders determine purpose and goals, make final decisions, and decide rewards

Employees are not allowed to be true partners in the enterprise

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Participative Management

16

Employees are expected to:

Make suggestions for quality improvements

Act as team players

Take greater responsibility for their own jobs

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Stewardship

Belief that leaders are deeply accountable to others as well as to the organization

Without trying to control others, define meaning and purpose for others, or take care of others

17

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Principles for Stewardship

18

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Adopt a partnership mindset

Give decision-making power and the authority to act to those closest to the work and the customer

Tie rewards to contributions rather than formal positions

Expect core work teams to build the organization

The Servant Leader

19

Puts service before self-interest

Listens first to affirm others

Inspires trust by being trustworthy

Nourishes others and helps them become whole

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Courage

Mental and moral strength to engage in, persevere through, and withstand danger, difficulty, or fear

Accepting responsibility

Nonconformity

Pushing beyond the comfort zone

20

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Courage

Asking for what you want and saying what you think

Abilene paradox: Tendency to resist voicing their true thoughts or feelings in order to please others and avoid conflict

Fighting for what you believe

21

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

How Does Courage Apply to Moral Leadership

22

Applying courage to:

Be unconventional and do what is right

Step up and take responsibility

Balance:

Profit with people and self-interest with service

Control with stewardship

Act like a moral leader

Whistleblowing: Employee disclosure of illegal, immoral, or unethical practices in the organization

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Finding Personal Courage

23

©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

Believe in a higher purpose

Draw strength from others

Harness frustration and anger

Take small steps

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