see attached – need it in 12 hrs, no grammatical errors.
Answer the following questions. Minimum 300 words, must have in-text citation and, references in APA format
9.1 Construct Validity
Go to the Internet and look up the definition of the construct “aggression.” Answer the following questions:
· Is this a concrete or abstract construct? Explain.
· What meanings did you find?
· How would these different definitions of the construct of aggression affect the way in which you might build a test to measure it?
· Search the internet and see if you can locate any tests or measures for different forms of aggression. If so, what are they and how do they differ?
· How might you gather evidence of construct validity for a test of aggression?
· Be sure to support your discussion with scholarly sources
Need responses for following discussion posts – minimum 150 words for each response and must have in-text citation and references in APA format to support the responses.
Aggression would be more of an abstract construct than a concrete construct. This is because aggression is a psychological construct, which means it is not observable, and the definition can vary (Miller & Lover, 2020). For example, aggression could be defined and seen differently from culture to culture. Furthermore, one possible definition of aggression is “as the number of behaviors that lead to physical harm, or it could be defined as the number of physical and verbal threats (Davis, 2020).”
Given the various perspectives on aggression, one would need to use their definition of aggression to guide an aggression assessment. Meaning, a researcher would use the definition to guide and justify the development, implementation, interpretation, and inference based on the test used to measure. For instance, one researcher may define aggression solely based on physical acts, while another might also include verbal attacks. Thus, the test and results would reflect their opinions.
Zelin et al. (1972) developed the Anger Self Report survey that measured aggression. Specifically, the authors measured awareness of anger, expression of anger, general expressions of anger, guilt, condemnation of anger, and mistrust. On the other hand, Buss and Perry (1992) created the Aggression Questionnaire (AGQ) that assessed physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and hostility. Thus, these two surveys would lead to slightly different conclusions. For example, Zelin et al. included a measurement of guilt.
To establish construct validity, we would gather theoretical as well as psychometric evidence (Miller and Lover, 2020). For theoretical, we would try to find out what other constructs relate to aggression, do a literature to better understand aggression behaviors. Based on the previously stated, we would then draw a model that pulls it all together and develop a test that allows us to test an aggression model. From there, we would work to establish psychometric evidence such as reliability and validity.
Buss, A. H. & Perry, M. (1992). The Aggression Questionnaire. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 452-459.
Davis, B. (2020, January 10). Home. MVOrganizing. Retrieved November 3, 2021, from https://www.mvorganizing.org/how-do-you-operationally-define-aggression/#How_do_you_operationally_define_aggression.
Miller, L., & Lovler, R. (2020). Foundations of psychological testing: A practical approach (6th Edition). Sage
Zelin, M. L., Adler, G., & Myerson, P. G. (1972). Anger Self-Report: An objective questionnaire for the measurement of aggression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 39(2), 340
I believe that aggression is an abstract construct. According to Miller & Lovler (2020), “Because psychological constructs exist primarily in our imaginations and are not observable, it is more difficult to define a test domain well enough to construct a test that contains a representative sample from the construct”, (p. 221). I wonder if they could have used the word construct a few more times in this sentence… You know, just for clarity. I am no psychologist, but there seem to be some key points that support this. First, you can’t physically see “aggression”. While you can see many of the traits or behaviors that might be associated with aggression, aggression itself is not definitively observable. Those traits and behaviors could be the result of something other than aggression. The context of the situation/environment also effects the meaning of those traits and behaviors. The meanings and definitions of aggression are varied and broad and are dependent on multiple conditions. One of the definitions that I found is, “A type of behavior intending to cause physical or mental harm”. Another is, “hostile or violent behavior or attitudes toward another; readiness to attack or confront”. And yet one more is, “ a range of behaviors that can result in both physical and psychological harm to yourself, others, or objects in the environment”.
Obviously, how we define the term aggression will have a great deal of influence on how we develop a test to measure it. If we are trying to measure aggression as it is defined in my first example, we would need the test to measure behaviors that are intended to cause physical or mental harm. But what would those behaviors be and towards whom or what would then need to be directed? And what defines physical or mental harm exactly? If we used the second definition example, the test would need to measure “hostile or violent behavior or attitudes toward another”. What one person sees as a hostile behavior, another may not, and attitudes are very subjective. Searching the internet for tests or measures for different forms of aggression, I found the IDRlabs Aggression Spectrum Test (IDR-AST). I also found the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) The way that these two tests are different is in the specific traits or behaviors that they measure which they use to define aggression. When it comes to ways of gathering evidence of construct validity for a test of aggression, there are a few ways, but there is one central concept to remember. As much as I hate to start a thought with a quote, we see an easy, specific, and very accurate answer from Miller & Lovler (2020) when they state, “To understand the process of establishing evidence of construct validity, we apply the scientific method for testing the hypotheses proposed by theories” (p. 215). In other words, using trial and error to see if what we think is true, actually is true. So, we would need to first gather theoretical evidence that relates to how the test measures aggression. Then we would need to gather psychometric evidence that relates to how the test measures aggression. References Aggression. (2018). Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia, 1. https://search.ebscohost.com /login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=sso&db=funk&AN=ag038000&site=eds-live&scope =site& custid=s8425478 Aggression test. IDRlabs. (n.d.). Retrieved November 1, 2021, from https://www.idrlabs.com/ aggression/test.php. Lanza, M. L. (1983). Origins of aggression. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 21(6), 11–16. Miller, L. A., Lovler, R. L. (2020). Foundations of Psychological Testing. SAGE Publications. Kindle Edition. Shuman, R. B. (2019). Aggression. Salem Press Encyclopedia of Health.