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Human Research Protection
This week you will examine the concept of protecting human subjects in research. The aim is to familiarize you with the ethical issues associated with research and gain firsthand information of the processes used to protect research participants. Search YouTube for the following videos to review:
· Caring Corrupted: The Killing Nurses of the Third Reich
· Research Ethics involving Human Subjects
· The Belmont Report (Part One: Basic Ethical Principles)
· The Belmont Report (Part Two: Applying the Principles)
· Guiding Principles of Institutional Review Boards (IRB)
After viewing the videos, in a Microsoft Word document of 2-3 pages formatted in APA style, address the following criteria for each video:
· Describe one point from each video that you think is important regarding protecting human subjects in research.
· Your rationale for why you think the point you described is important.
On a separate references page, cite all sources using APA format. Helpful APA guides and resources are available in the South University Online Library. Below are guides that are located in the library and can be accessed and downloaded via the South University Online Citation Resources: APA Style page . The American Psychological Association website also provides detailed guidance on formatting, citations, and references at APA Style. • APA Citation Helper • APA Citations Quick Sheet • APA-Style Formatting Guidelines for a Written Essay • Basic Essay Template
Running Head: HUMAN RESEARCH PROTECTION 1
HUMAN RESEARCH PROTECTION 5
Human Research Protection
November 1, 2021
Research is essential for the development of healthcare. We get a lot of knowledge from research that benefits our community and the patients. However, when doing research, we must ensure that the people who are being studied are safe. Many historical cases of human subjects not being safeguarded have been documented through time. It is why we have policies and rules in place today. I now have a better idea of why things needed to change after seeing the five films given.
In elementary school, I recall learning about the Holocaust. It was fascinating to me, and I wanted to study and comprehend more about it. However, I had no idea about the medical element or how involved nurses were in the acts. I’m stunned after viewing CARING CORRUPTED – The Third Reich’s Killing Nurses. Nurses voluntarily killed and experimented on innocent victims in a variety of ways. The majority of the nurses carried out the activities without hesitation (Cizik School of Nursing, 2017). The people were well-versed about what was going on, and the procedure was carried out without their permission. To test the body’s limitations, some were dunked in cold water in tanks. Some persons were used to make wounds, which were then packed with various resources and watched to see how the body reacted (Cizik School of Nursing, 2017). All of the rights of the people who were subjected to these atrocities were infringed. For healthcare to identify cures and therapies for our patients, research is critical. However, it is our responsibility to protect children from abuse and torture. This pivotal period in history should not be overlooked. As healthcare practitioners, we must ensure that they are protected.
In 1947, the Nuremberg Code was formed as a result of this. Needed improvements were implemented in the video, Research Ethics with Human Subjects. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study was undertaken in the United States from 1932 and 1973. People’s rights were once again infringed, and they were subjected to experiments without their knowledge or agreement. Finally, those responsible for the murders and investigations were brought to justice. Some were handed death sentences, while others were given prison sentences. The Belmont Report was developed as a result of the numerous infractions of persons in research.
It set rules and procedures to ensure that such infractions would not occur in the future (Daigle, 2014). The Belmont Report serves as a foundation for ensuring that individuals are safeguarded and not damaged in the future. The goal of video one was to show how during the Holocaust, nurses essentially abandoned all professional ethics to exploit their nursing professions to impose and engage in various unethical behaviors. It emphasizes how simple it is to persuade those regarded as “less than” into doing things for which they have no choice or precise knowledge. I’ve seen this video before, and it never ceases to astound me what individuals have been able to get away with at the price of human life. I could go on and on describing what’s wrong with this video for far longer than we have time.
The Belmont report set essential standards and procedures for safeguarding human participants in research studies. The Belmont Report (Part 1and Part 2) videos explain how we can protect those people. Three ethical principles identified by the Belmont Report are respect for the person(s), generosity, and impartiality. It is critical to ensure that everything is communicated to them and comprehend and willingly accept participating in the research. To safeguard these persons, it is necessary to ensure that the project’s risks and benefits do not violate their rights or put them in danger (Irbmed, 2011). A committee is formed to oversee a research project from beginning to end, ensuring that the norms and regulations are followed. The third video’s goal is to begin explaining the Belmont Report. First, it goes over the report’s core ideas in-depth, emphasizing the significance of ensuring that these ideas are properly understood. Next, he provides concrete examples of how to grasp each idea. The need to know why basic concepts are vital in research is one of the points made in this video. In the second part, you’ll learn how to put the essential ideas taught in the last video into practice. Finally, this video goes through all of the regulations around consent in great detail.
According to the Guiding Principles of Institutional Review Boards (IRB), the committees for research initiatives are made up of a diverse group of persons. In addition, there are additional IRBs at more prominent universities to cover all of the industries. Having a diverse board of directors ensures that the plans are lenient and that the focus is actually on research that will benefit people rather than hurt them.
Having an IRB involved in every research endeavor helps ensure that human subjects are not harmed and that history does not repeat itself (Johns Hopkins Medicine, 2015). It is another method in which we can safeguard our patients. The goal of this final film was to clarify the IRB’s mission and structure. It went on how Johns Hopkins engages in research and how their IRBs function. One takeaway from this film is the extensive safeguards to ensure the proper treatment of study volunteers. I was aware that laws and rules were in existence, but I was unaware of their history. I now have a better idea of why things are in place after seeing the films. Torture was inflicted on patients, and abuses were perpetrated by those who were supposed to safeguard them. It is critical for everyone concerned to have IRBs involved to ensure that this does not happen again. People want their healthcare staff to look after them and help them get better. It is our responsibility to ensure that we do so. As nurses, we must play a role in ensuring that history does not repeat itself. My conclusion from this is that a person must comprehend what they agree to complete and withdraw their permission at any time.
Cizik School of Nursing. (2017, February 24). CARING CORRUPTED – The Killing Nurses of The Third Reich. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rz8ge4aq8Ws
Daigle, Delton. [Delton Daigle]. (2014, May 29). Research Ethics involving Human Subjects. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-O5gsF5oyls
Irbmed. (2011, October 11). The Belmont Report (Part One: Basic Ethical Principles). [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=86zWBjDaXPk
Irbmed. (2011, October 11). The Belmont Report (Part Two: Applying the Principles). [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cIafASIIU70
Johns Hopkins Medicine. (2015, October 8). Guiding Principles of Institutional Review Boards (IRB). [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iFik0of3iUM