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Outline for Research Paper

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I. Introduction A. Get Reader’s Attention (Hook) B. Set the Context – Why is this topic important? c. Thesis Statement – What is your argument + preview 3 main general points you will make to prove it

II. Background A. Brief history of the issue B. Impact of the issue C. Relevance to current time

III. Body Paragraph (1st general idea from thesis)

A. Main Idea – Topic sentence

B. Evidence / Example from your sources – Quotation or paraphrase (Cite)

C. Analysis – Go into more depth to connect the evidence to the idea. Plan for several sentences. This is where you really explain and support your ideas.

D. Link – connect the idea in this paragraph to the next one (transition)

IV. Body Paragraph (2nd general idea from thesis)

A. Main Idea

B. Evidence

C. Analysis

D. Link/Transition

V. Body Paragraph (3rd general idea from thesis)

A. Main Idea

B. Evidence

C. Analysis

D. Link/Transition

Continue this paragraph pattern for any additional body paragraphs

*A main idea can have more than one paragraph as long as you have fresh evidence to discuss.

VI. Acknowledge the Counterargument – this part can go in any logical place in your essay where it best supports the flow of your argument A. What does the opposing side think or say? B. Refute / Discuss why your argument is better C. Evidence and Analysis for support

VII. Conclusion

A. Restate your thesis in a fresh way (don’t copy thesis word-for-word)

B. Statement that ties your entire essay together

C. Answer the question – “So what?” – Why does this matter? What should the reader be inspired to do with this information?

I. Introduction

A. Technology is increasingly available to children.

1. The rapidly growing availability of electronically based entertainment, especially for children, is an undeniable reality in today’s world.

B. A large portion of electronic activities and games are geared toward children.

1. Ads (such as those on Youtube) appeal to children or parents for children.

C. Thesis statement: “The excessive use of electronics, especially electronic gaming, detrimentally affects the physical, emotional, and social well-being of children.”

II. Background: High Use of Electronics by Young People

A. The high volume of engagement in electronic gaming and entertainment by children and adolescents warrants an analysis of their effects on them.

1. “Caregivers…educators…adults…know that children and adolescents spend a lot of time using electronic media” (Hertz).

2. American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015: “Estimated that…children use electronics…at least up to seven hours a day…” (qtd. in Ngalame).

III. Excessive use of electronics negatively impacts the physical health of children.

A. “In some ways, esports are like traditional sports…but…differ markedly from traditional sports in that athletes manipulate avatars…instead of physically confronting opponents…” (Holden).

1. Esports lessen needed physical engagement and exercise.

IV. The emotional or psychological health of young people suffers because of addiction to electronic gaming and other activities.

A. “Emotional responses…with…completion of the video game…seek out…a never- ending cycle of playing behavior” (Griffiths).

1. Video games are emotionally addictive by nature.

V. Children tend to experience social problems as a result of unhealthy usage of and addiction to electronics.

A. “…using technology can hinder children’s socials skills that they can develop” (Ngalame).

1. Technology use can discourage social activity and development.

VI. No scientifically documented arguments were found denying the effects of overuse of electronics by adolescents and children.

A. Objection: There is some consensus that electronic gaming is a harmless pastime.

1. “Let children be children.”

B. Objection: Children who use electronics as a primary form of entertainment certainly would resist restrictions on their use.

2. “They are fun; everyone is into Fortnite.”

C. Rebuttal: Children should be allowed to be children.

1. Electronics are superimposed; not a wholesome part of childhood.

a. “Wherefore do ye spend your money for that which is not bread…” (King James Version, Isa. 55:2).

D. Rebuttal: Children require the vigilant monitoring of their activities by parents.

1. Parents should restrict electronics time.

a. “…a child left to himself bringeth his mother to shame” (King James Version, Prov. 29:15).

VII. Conclusion

A. Electronic gaming is growing and not waning.

1. It deserves consideration of its long-term effects.

B. Children and adolescents need the nurture and discipline of parents.

1. Their well-being demands the action of adults to protect and equip them.

Works Cited

The Bible. Authorized King James Version, Oxford UP, 1998.

Griffiths, Mark D. “Online Games, Addiction and Overuse of.” 4 Nov. 2014. Wiley Online

Library, doi: onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/9781118767771.wbiedcs044.

Accessed 1 Apr. 2021.

Hertz, Marci Feldman, and Corinne David-Ferdon. “Electronic Media and Youth Violence: A

CDC Issue Brief for Educators and Caregivers.” United States, Department of Health

and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009,


Accessed 1 Apr. 2021.

Holden, John T., et al. “Esports: Children, Stimulants and Video-gaming-induced Inactivity.”

Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, vol. 54, no. 8, Aug. 2018, Wiley Online

Library, doi: onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdfdirect/10.1111/jpc.13897. Accessed 1 Apr.


Ngalame, Senge D. “The Impact of Electronics and Development in Children: A Systematic

Review.” 2015. Concordia University; Master’s dissertation. WordPress,

wp.cune.org/sengengalame/files/2013/08/Senge-Ngalame_Week-8.docx. Accessed 1

Apr. 2021.

ENG WK 4 DB Mod 4 AS 2

For this discussion board, you will compose a detailed outline that plans your academic essay, which you will write in the next week of the course. Your upcoming essay will need to be 4-5 pages in MLA format with 4-5 sources. In this essay, you will make a sound argument about the academic topic you’ve been working with in class. Remember: you must position yourself on one side of the debate for this assignment.

You are required to have the following elements in your essay:

(1) An introduction that introduces the topic and ends with a strong thesis. Your thesis should state your argument and its major reasons in a clear, concise manner;

(2) A background paragraph that offers your reader more information about the topic and its current debate (or relevant history);

(3) Three to four paragraphs that identify your three to four major reasons. Each paragraph should have a clear topic sentence that links back to the thesis, and you should support each body paragraph with sufficient, credible evidence and analysis;

(4) Refutation of Opposing Arguments. You should present the opposing side or potential obstacles and offer a refutation in order to convince your reader and eliminate bias;

(5) A conclusion paragraph that ties all of your paper’s points together and argues an overall significance.

Assignment Guidelines

For the outline, you will NOT draft the essay; instead, you will begin to map out its frame. Please use the template below to construct your outline in a document.

Outline Template/Example:

OUTLINE_TEMPLATE.docx OUTLINE_TEMPLATE.docx – Alternative Formats (opens in a new window)

Student Outline Example.docx Student Outline Example.docx – Alternative Formats (opens in a new window)

Response Requirement:

Once you’ve completed your outline, please submit it to the appropriate Discussion Board space. You will have twenty-four hours to respond to two peers. As you respond to peers, consider the following:

Does the writer demonstrate focus through a detailed thesis statement that organizes the frame of the essay?

Does the writer include clear topic sentences that align to the thesis statement?

Does the writer showcase specific evidence to support the topic sentences?

Does the writer seem to use credible, sufficient evidence to support each body section?

Echoles 1

Name: Antwan Echoles

Course: Writing and Inquiry (ENG-111-2905)

Title: Assignment 2 – Research Log

Date: October 27, 2021

Works Cited

ALI, NI, et al. “Cybercrime an emerging challenge for internet users: An overview.” Sindh University Research Journal (Science Series) 50.3D (2018): 55-58. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333132250_Cybercrime_an_emerging_challenge_for_internet_users_An_overview

Choi, Kyung-shick, and Claire Seungeun Lee. “The present and future of cybercrime, cyberterrorism, and cybersecurity.” International Journal of Cybersecurity Intelligence & Cybercrime 1.1 (2018): 1-4. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328433593_The_Present_and_Future_of_Cybercrime_Cyberterrorism_and_Cybersecurity

Malby, Steven, et al. “Comprehensive study on cybercrime.” United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Tech. Rep (2013). https://www.unodc.org/documents/organized-crime/UNODC_CCPCJ_EG.4_2013/CYBERCRIME_STUDY_210213.pdf

Nurse, Jason RC. “Cybercrime and you: How criminals attack and the human factors that they seek to exploit.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1811.06624 (2018). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/328762019_Cybercrime_and_You_How_Criminals_Attack_and_the_Human_Factors_That_They_Seek_to_Exploit

The Research Process

I examined the sources and authors’ credentials and affiliations, and the sources cited by the authors. I reviewed the source’s relevance and applicability and analyzed the reputation of the publisher of the source. The main obstacle was the many deceiving sources with the correct information but not credible. The characteristic that made me choose the sources were; they were up to date; their pages and links were current and working. The authors’ names and credentials were listed, and there was a link between the author and the biographical information. Additionally, the information the sources are relaying is correct and presented with less prejudice and bias to the authors’ opinion and of the opposing view.

Cybercrimes are advancing as technology advances; cybercriminals are looking for new ways to victimize people and organizations. Cybercriminals are inventing new ways to attack their victims, a reason why organizations are still attacked despite taking all the necessary requirements to prevent cyber-attacks. I have found out that money is not the only aim of cybercrimes; cybercrime is also used as a tool to achieve a political goal, and for competition purposes, mostly between rival companies.

I will use this research to identify the best policies and practices to prevent cybercrimes. I will also use this research to reduce the reoccurrence of cybercrimes through interventions and awareness and reduce victimization among people using computers and other technologies. This information will support my claim that people need regular awareness of cybercrime techniques and strategies to lessen the attacks. This will help individuals know that cybercriminals are enhancing their strategies as technology grows, but security measures on cybercrimes are not growing at the same rate. It will also disprove that most people who are victims of cybercrimes do not take the defense of cybercrime.

TO: Mr. Welch

FROM: Antwan Echoles

DATE: October 28, 2021

RE: Cybercrimes

Cybercrimes are criminal activities carried out using computers or the internet and are committed by cyber criminals aiming to make money (Jahankhani, Al-Nemrat & Hosseinian-Far, 2014). Cybercrimes have made people lose money, intellectual property, and reputation. Cybercrimes are relevant in today’s culture because technology is advancing by the day, yet security measures to protect the technology are not growing at the same rate leading to high numbers of cybercrimes.

As an internet user, cybercrimes affect me directly. I was once a victim of phishing, a cybercrime where attackers send malicious emails to users and access their computers. I never realized I was dealing with criminals until I could no longer log into my computer because the criminals were in control of it and had to pay money to get my credentials back. Cybercrime is a significant problem today that is advancing and disrupting people and daily organizational operations.

Information on how cyber criminals attack people and organizations despite using strong passwords, updating their software’s and keeping up with significant security breaches needs to be addressed. Information on the rapid increase of cybercrimes and why it takes long for actions to be taken on cyber criminals need to be addressed. Cyber criminals are ahead of most people using the internet; despite most of them taking the necessary caution to prevent cybercrimes, they still look for new ways to hit their targets.

The opposition to the argument is that most people who are victims of cyber criminals do not take the defense of cybercrimes. Cyber criminals are advancing on the ways to target their victims; they are looking for new strategies day by day (Jahankhani, Al-Nemrat, & Hosseinian-Far, 2014). Most organizations have been victims of cybercrimes despite monitoring computer equipment and systems, encrypting important information, securing their devices and network, and backing up their data because the criminals look for new strategies which people are not prepared for.

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