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Comparison of maternal healthcare between US and UK

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The state of maternal healthcare in the UK is better than in the USA. The argument is based on the mortality rate resulting from maternal complications and the ranking of the US compared to other developed countries. The maternal mortality ratio in the USA, according to 2018 statistics, is 17.4 for every 100 000 pregnancies recorded in the country, resulting in a total of 6660 deaths as a result of maternal complications (Maternal mortality maternity care the US compared ten other countries, 2020). There is an overrepresentation of Obstetrician-gynaecologists in the healthcare system as opposed to midwives. Additionally, there is a shortage of maternity care providers relative to birth compared to the case of the UK, where that number of maternity care providers is high, hence helping reduce the maternal mortality rate. Furthermore, as countries improve access to providing home visits, there is no guarantee of home visits and paid parental leave in the postpartum period (Maternal mortality in the United States: A primer, 2020).

Maternal healthcare services in the UK are managed and coordinated well compared to the USA, and it is evidence-based on the maternal mortality rate where the rate is high in the USA compared to the UK. The difference in the quality of service provision is that the supply of maternity care providers in the US is low, resulting in health complications. Additionally, there are no comprehensive postpartum supports in the US as compared to the UK.

In conclusion, maternal healthcare in the UK is better than in the USA, and it is evident based on the statics of maternal mortality rate where the number is higher in the US compared to the UK. There is no guarantee of access to providing home visits and paid parental leave in the postpartum period in the USA.

References

Maternal mortality in the United States: A primer. (2020). Commonwealth Fund. https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/issue-brief-report/2020/dec/maternal-mortality-united-states-primer

Maternal mortality maternity care US compared 10 other countries. (2020). Commonwealth  Fund. https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/issue-       briefs/2020/nov/maternal-mortality-maternity-care-us-compared-10-countries.

Luanda Gan Bedoya

The US and the UK System of Maternal Health

The US and the UK use different systems, with the former using the health care business model. The latter use the model of the National Health Service. Maternal mortality and morbidity, preterm birth rates, and other adverse birth outcomes in the United States are among the worst in the industrialized world and continue to worsen. Preterm birth rates and rates of serious illness during pregnancy are twice as high for black women as for white women. Racial discrimination in law and in practice interferes with women’s fundamental human right to health, with a particular focus on the maternal health of black women in the South, who are nearly four times more likely to die in the South Childbirth than white women, as well as immigrant women’s access to reproductive services.

Unlike in the UK, women of different ages and with various income levels have access to FDA-approved contraception, cancer and sexually transmitted disease screening, pregnancy testing, and counseling (Blakeney et al., 2020). The benefit of the UK system is the management of primary maternity care for all women, and midwifery, a collegiate, supportive, and readily available specialty should only be used as needed. It is quite the opposite in the US, where highly skilled surgeons and specialists compete for opportunities to deliver the most normal and uncomplicated deliveries of the US population of low-risk deliveries. Fewer mothers die in the UK and that may be because they have free health care, midwifery supervision for normal maternal health care, and better postpartum and mental health support. The United States could learn a few things from our sisters on the other side (AIMS Education, 2015). The health care model in the UK is a socialized system attributed to controlled factors of production, national ownership, universal coverage, and tax-based financing. In addition, it offers the same health care to all people, as the government oversees managing health care resources and staffing health care facilities. The UK has better access to maternal health. As the professional nurse have a responsibility to provide the highest quality care to every patient and a legal obligation to know and understand the standard of care imposed on them.

References

AIMS Education. (2015, August 27). US vs UK: Allied Healthcare at Home and Abroad. Retrieved from AIMS Education: https://aimseducation.edu/blog/us-vs-uk-allied-healthcare

Blakeney, E. A. R., Bekemeier, B., & Zierler, B. K. (2020). Relationships between the great

           recession and widening maternal and child health Disparities: Findings from

           Washington and Florida. Race and social problems, 12(2), 87-102.

Rebeca Urbina

 Comparison of Better Maternal Health between US and UK

I think that the United Kingdom has better access to maternal health than the United States. In the YouTube video, US and UK. Health System Comparison, Childers shows that the United Kingdom has publicly financed health care systems while the United States has privatized health care systems. Privatizing the health care system might limit access to health care systems to a marginalized group in society. Therefore, access to health care might be biased, suggesting that publicly financed health care is better in promoting equity and equality. This supports that the United Kingdom, which has publicly funded health care, provides better and easy access to maternal health than the United States.

Secondly, Nisha et al. (2020) reveal that the United States health care sector is funded by private insurance companies, general income taxes, payroll taxes, and beneficiary premiums. The multi-payer system encourages a multi-faceted decision-making approach which might be biased. On the other hand, United Kingdom has a singer-payer system that fully funds the system (Nisha et al., 2020). As a result, every individual has equal access to health care. This tends to lower the maternal mortality rate in the United Kingdom as compared to the United States.

The Commonwealth Fund (2020) findings reveal that in 2018 United States had a maternal mortality of 17 out of 100,000 live births, which doubles the ratio in other high-income countries. For instance, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2021) highlights that Florida has a rate of 15.8 per 100,000 live births. Unfortunately, the ratio is high and alarming, which compromises maternal health in the United States. On the contrary, according to the Knoema report (2021), the maternal mortality ratio in the United Kingdom in 2017 was seven deaths in 100,000 live births. The ratio difference manifests that the United Kingdom has better access to maternal health than the United States.

 References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2021, March 12). Stats of the states – infant mortality. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/sosmap/infant_mortality_rates/infant_mortality.htm

Knoema. (Accessed on October 1, 2021). United Kingdom- maternal mortality ratio. Retrieved from https://knoema.com/atlas/United-Kingdom/Maternal-mortality-ratio

Nisha, K., Daniel, M., & Nicolas, S. (2020). Peterson-Kaiser Health System Tracker: How does the quality of the US healthcare system compare to other countries? Retrieved from: https://www.healthsystemtracker.org/chart-collection/quality-u-s-healthcare-system-compare-countries/#item-post-op-clots-better-u-s-comparable-countries

The Commonwealth Fund. (2020). Maternal mortality and maternity care in the United States compared to 10 other developed countries. Retrieved from: https://www.commonwealthfund.org/publications/issue-briefs/2020/nov/maternal-mortality-maternity-care-us-compared-10-countries

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Aymee Morales Aranegui

Access to Maternal Health in USA and United Kingdom

The U.S. and UK healthcare systems are structured differently, and accessibility to healthcare services varies.

In the United Kingdom, the health service offers low-cost or free care to women who reside legally in the country. This care is based on medical services for women of reproductive age that provide all necessary studies, procedures, and treatments, such as genetic evaluation and care for high-risk pregnancies. On the other hand, women who have a very low risk of complications can freely choose to give birth in the comfort of their home attended by midwives when they have a very low risk of complications. This valuable opportunity for women also offers, by obstetric nurses, adequate education for pain management during childbirth, maternal recovery, breastfeeding advice, mental health, instructions according to the normal psychomotor development of the baby, necessary immunizations, etc.

In the US, medical care is provided through private insurance, from its economy, or by providing medical care through the government. Laboratory studies, images, procedures, and hospitalizations have an added cost so that women cannot enjoy care worthy of health services. Notably, the U.S. has more uninsured citizens than the UK (Childers, 2016). The lack of prenatal care, the increase in chronic diseases such as obesity, heart disorders, and diabetes, together with the high rates of cesarean sections, have contributed to the US having high mortality rates about the United Kingdom and other countries developed from Europe. The maternal health resources also include abortion with and without insurance coverage. When a woman has decided to have an abortion, she must have access to safe medical care, and providing health coverage of abortion means she can see a licensed, quality health provider (NWLC, 2017). 

In the United States of America, all deliveries are in Hospital institutions, therefore they are attended directly by obstetrician physicians, even though the care is highly specialized, it entails higher examinations, interventions, and, therefore, expenses.

Undoubtedly, the differences between the two health care systems for women are evident. The role of nurse practitioners can contribute at the local, state, or federal level to change this policy.

References

Childers, C. (2016, April 26). US and UK health system comparison. [Video]. YouTube.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R4Y0TKiwNgo

NWLC (National Women’s Law Center). (2017). State laws regulation insurance coverage of abortion have serious consequences for women’s equality, health, and economic health. National Women’s Law Centerhttps://nwlc.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/50-State-Insurance-Coverage-of-Abortion-1.pdf

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Edited by Aymee Morales Aranegui on Oct 1, 2021, 1:11:30 PM

Reply

Ana Perez Irazoqui

20 hours ago, at 12:23 PM

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Maternal Health in the United Kingdom and Unites States

Maternity-related complications are preventable when adequate measures are put into place. Both US and UK are high-income countries and therefore have improved levels of maternity care compared to other countries in the world. However, they do have disparities which make them have varied differences in maternity care. To understand how these nations have disparities in pregnancy-related care, it is accurate for the inclusion of relevant data. According to the WHO, the year 2020 was associated with marked maternal deaths in the US which accounted for 17 maternal deaths in every 100000 live births (Tikkanen et al., 2020). Compared to the UK at the same time, there were about 4 maternal deaths in every 100,000 live births. This accumulated threefold of maternal mortality cases in the US compared to those in the UK. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention asserts that the high incidences of maternal mortality ratio in the US occurs post-delivery and not during pregnancy. 

There are a variety of reasons that makes maternal-related complications on the high end in the US than in the UK. From the onset, the large size of the nation makes the respective health care agencies overwhelmed to ensure an adequate number of health care professionals. According to the Commonwealth Fund, the US experiences a shortage of midwives as compared to the UK (Tikkanen et al., 2020). This is relative to its high population of live births. The position of midwives in the healthcare system is to walk women through pregnancies by making sure that they assess and identify their needs. Such efforts assist in the identification of leading pregnancy complications like pre-eclampsia. On the other hand, there is less number of obstetric gynecologists in the US complicating the process of treating pregnancy-related hazards. Therefore, maternity care is quite on the high end in the UK than in the US owed to its overwhelmed health care system and lack of adequate healthcare professionals.  

References

Tikkanen, R., Gunja, M. Z., FitzGerald, M., & Zephyrin, L. (2020). Maternal mortality and maternity care in the United States compared to 10 other developed countries. Issue briefs, Commonwealth Fund.

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Joyce Rivera

Analyzing the issue of maternal health, American medical care is not the best in the world, pregnant women in the United States have a risk of mortality three times higher than in the United Kingdom. For example, labor and delivery are safer in Liverpool than in Louisiana, and cheaper. Speaking of cost, in US dollars, it costs $ 2,300 on average for a vaginal delivery or planned caesarean section in the UK, $ 3,400 for a more complicated procedure. In the United States, a vaginal delivery costs $ 30,000 and a planned cesarean section costs $ 50,000, meaning a birth is 13 times more expensive in the United States and a complicated delivery costs almost 15 times more (Bloom, 2017).

As for the US maternal mortality rate, there was an alarming increase of almost 27 percent between 2000 and 2014, according to a study from the University of Maryland. Of every 100,000 live births, nearly 24 women died during or within 42 days of pregnancy in 2014, an increase of nearly 19 per 100,000 in 2000. Women in the United States generally visit obstetricians And gynecologists, for example, American physicians have a financial incentive to schedule more tests, scans, and procedures, including caesarean sections. The more medical interventions there are, the more side effects and the more potential problems. Unlike the United States, in the United Kingdom, women generally consult midwives, these are the ones who prioritize low-intervention pregnancies and natural childbirth. The main difference is that the UK maintains strict standards across the country that help doctors care without exception for all their patients before, during and after delivery (Bloom, 2017).

In the United States there is no universal medical care or solid federal standards, which is why the existing inequality, low-income women cannot pay for first-class care and this means that they can receive deficient care, resulting in death maternal and neonatal. It is a reality that poor women, African-Americans and those who live in rural areas, have higher mortality rates during and after pregnancy in the United States, however in the United Kingdom, this does not happen, there is a minimal statistical difference significant in mortality rates among women in the highest and lowest socioeconomic groups. All women in the UK have equal access to public health services (Bloom, 2017).

The differences between access to maternal health and statistics between the United States and the United Kingdom are evident. Much remains to be done, as advanced nursing professionals, we must reach out to those poor communities. Prenatal care must be promoted from within, reaching women who have little or no access to maternal health, to women’s health.

References

Bloom, E. (2017). It costs $27,000 more to give birth in the US than it does in the UK—here’s why. Retrieved from https://www.cnbc.com/2017/09/25/how-much-less-it-costs-to-give-birth-in-the-uk-than-in-the-us.html

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Edited by Joyce Rivera Garcia on Oct 1, 2021, 5:48:30 PM

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Abey Hernandez Marin

 U.S. & U.K. Health Systems

            Maternal health is a global development Challenge that needs to be addressed by policymakers. Over 800 women die from factors related to pregnancy and childbirth, with 99% of these from developing countries (WHO, 2018). Despite participating in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the U.S.; still records the highest maternal deaths compared to the U.K.; therefore, the U.K.’s maternal health is better than that of the U.S. because the cost of maternal health in the U.K. is cheaper than that of the U.S., the U.K. embraces midwifery, and the U.K. has more options for birth settings.

           To begin with, maternal care in the U.K. is cost-effective. The National Health Service in the U.K. provides low cost of maternal care to its citizens (Lewis, 2018). Women are given free maternal healthcare. While in the U.S., women pay for maternal care through insurance programs in cash. Maternity care prices vary significantly between facilities (Tanne, 2020). Many American mothers cannot pay for insurance, meaning that they cannot get the best prenatal and postnatal care.

           Secondly, midwifery care is more ordinary in the U.K. than in the U.S. Most women in the U.K. visit midwives for prenatal care and follow-up care during the postnatal period. Midwives attend to most births in hospitals and birth centers, and when complications arise, patients are assessed and treated by an accoucheur (Lewis, 2018). While in the U.S., most women see accoucheurs who tend to prescribe more tests and treatments than midwives do (Tanne, 2020). Since midwives are not widely available as accoucheurs, many women are unaware of the high-quality care they provide.

           Lastly, there are more options for birth settings in the U.K. than in the U.S. Mothers in the U.K. can choose to deliver in health facilities, in less-risky centers, or at home. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommends that home-based deliveries are safer than hospital births because mothers have better chances of having normal vaginal births. While in the U.S., almost all mothers prefer hospital-based deliveries. Since home-based deliveries are not readily available, and the American medical community strongly rejects homebirth.

           In conclusion, Though the U.S. participated in the Development of the Millennium Development Goals, the U.K.s maternal health is better since it is cost-effective, midwives provide maternal care to mothers, and there are numerous places where delivery can occur. The U.S. should therefore work on these aspects to make sure that it allows for better maternal health.

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Sinai Penalver

9/29/21, 11:26 PM

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Sinai Penalver

For the past two weeks, we have looked at the similarities and differences between the United States and the United Kingdom healthcare systems. The main aspect is that the U.S. healthcare system is currently a hybrid system with private and publicly funded channels. At the same time, the United Kingdom is public-centered, government-funded through taxation, and centrally managed. Unfortunately, the U.S. healthcare policy for public healthcare services is completely inadequate for the poor, the uninsured, and the elderly (Mason et al., 2015). Despite these differences, we have also analyzed maternal health within the United States. In particular, I took a look at the state of Pennsylvania. I found that low-income women, whose income falls below 220 percent of the federal poverty level, qualify for state family planning programs (NARAL Pro-Choice America, n.d.). With this in mind, despite the U.S. providing resources, I think the United Kingdom might have a slight advantage when it comes to access to maternal health solely on the fact that the expense of a medical bill, especially in the hard to reach population, is a major obstacle in the U.S. while free access to healthcare in the U.K. is not. Now free access to healthcare may have disadvantages, such as long wait times, but I think the benefit outweighs the risk. Lastly, previous studies have recommended low-income families attend lower-level facilities for uncomplicated services that price inflations have been observed in the U.S. (Banke-Thomas, et al., 2020).

References

Banke-Thomas, A., Abejirinde, I. O. O., Ayomoh, F. I., Banke-Thomas, O., Eboreime, E. A., & Ameh, C. A. (2020). The cost of maternal health services in low-income and middle-income countries from a provider’s perspective: a systematic review. BMJ global health5(6), e002371.

Mason, D. J., Gardner, D. B., Outlaw, F. H., &

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