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PHILOSOPHY AND AMERICAN CIVIL WARS 1

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Annotated Bibliography

Claudia S. Sample

School of Education, Liberty University

Author Note

Claudia S. Sample

I have no known conflict of interest to disclose.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Claudia S. Sample

Email: [email protected] Smith143770000000158976-S RUNNING HEAD: For the format of the running head, follow the guidelines at this website: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/paper-format/page-header * JUSTIFICATION: This can be tricky. Align the running head to the left margin of the page header, directly across from the right-aligned page number. You’ll need to set it so that the page number doesn’t drop down to the next line, especially when it goes to double digits at page number 10. This video will help you to set up the running head correctly: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QMEg9CR9SXg&t=3s

PHILOSOPHY AND AMERICAN CIVIL WARS 2

SOCRATES

Annotated Journal Articles on <Socrates >

Araújo Batista, G. (2015). Socrates: Philosophy applied to education – search for virtue.

ATHENS JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, 2(2), 149–156.

https://doi.org/10.30958/aje.2-2-5

The author of the article discusses the contribution of Socrates in education. Despite

history recording very many philosophers, few achieved what Socrates did in the field of

education. According to the author, Socrates did not limit himself to philosophy but also

immensely contributed to the development of Socratic education. He was a philosopher

who not only developed a philosophy, but also lived it. One reason that makes Socrates

outstanding in the field of education is his conceptualization of the investigation method.

According to the author of the article, Socrates developed dialogical method of

investigation whereby people need to reject or approve their thesis based on some

questions. The method by the research still upholds contemporarily in educational

researches. According to the moral philosophy of the author, education should promote

ethics within among individuals. Socrates believed that when people get educated, they

were to uphold morals a not only for their good but the entire society from which they

lived. Moreover, the author posits that, based on Socrates philosophy, educated people

were to pursue the good of entire society and not individual success. Literate individuals

ought to share knowledge with others to promote happy living. Virtuous people show the

persuasive skills and feel the conviction to assist other gain knowledge about moral

existence. Further, according to the interpretations by Araújo Batista (2015), virtue ishttps://doi.org/10.30958/aje.2-2-5Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S This should not be boldfaced here.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S Remove the brackets.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S All-caps are used only in the running head and in acronyms. Even if a database presents information in all-caps, please change it to conform to APA format. Database reference and citation information does not always conform to APA style.Samuel Smith143770000000158976+ You have selected relevant sources for your topic.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S PAST TENSE VERBS: Use past tense when writing a literature review or whenever discussing other researchers’ works. Their conclusions and claims should be presented in past tense. (Present tense verbs are used when describing ongoing conditions. Example: Automaticity occurs when learners . . .) For more information on past tense verbs in APA, see https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/grammar/verb-tenseSamuel Smith143770000000158976-S All-caps are used only in the running head and in acronyms. Even if a database presents information in all-caps, please change it to conform to APA format. Database reference and citation information does not always conform to APA style.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S Notice how often you use “According to . .” in this paragraph. Vary sentence structures to avoid redundant sentence patterns. Try transitional words and phrases so that sentences flow smoothly from one to the other so that they don’t seem like bullet points.

PHILOSOPHY AND AMERICAN CIVIL WARS 3

knowledge not always taught. People learn virtues majorly from soul searching within

their inner selves.

Kelam, I., & Vučić, J. S. (2019). The applicability of the Socrates method of education in

Education Today. Pannoniana, 3(1-2), 115–145. https://doi.org/10.2478/pannonia-

2019-0008

In this article, the authors discuss the use of Socrates method of education in the current

learning environment. Education has been transformed contemporarily. Due to changing

world needs, education policies and teaching methods have also changed to address the

need needs. According to the authors of this article, Socrates championed the love for

education as a means of gaining knowledge. Therefore, the main drive for to seek

education stemmed from the fascination about meeting new and helpful ideas. Moreover,

Socrates believed in having the desire to get educated to be independent and make

rational decisions. These concepts all apply in the modern academic settings. Learners

excelling in education show love and commitment towards their studies. As the world

changes, the students manifest great desire to cope up with new systems. Another

Socratic concept that emerges based on the article is that learning guarantees people

independence. According to Socrates, knowledgeable individuals were empowered to

make decisions for their sustained goodness and moral fulfillment. In the present learning

society, education is used to qualify people to certain jobs to make them independent in

their lives. Youth all over the world go to schools hoping to attain financial independence

in future. Socrates education philosophy also applies in terms of the outcome of

education. According to the philosopher, virtuous individuals should use their virtues nothttps://doi.org/10.2478/pannonia-2019-0008https://doi.org/10.2478/pannonia-2019-0008Samuel Smith143770000000158976* Watch out for redundancy.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S This should not be boldfaced here.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S PAST TENSE VERBS: Use past tense when writing a literature review or whenever discussing other researchers’ works. Their conclusions and claims should be presented in past tense. (Present tense verbs are used when describing ongoing conditions. Example: Automaticity occurs when learners . . .) For more information on past tense verbs in APA, see https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/grammar/verb-tenseSamuel Smith143770000000158976+ Reference format here is excellent!Samuel Smith143770000000158976+ Your annotation properly summarizes key aspects of the article.

PHILOSOPHY AND AMERICAN CIVIL WARS 4

only for their interest but also to benefit the society. The same applies to the modern

education. The society expected educated youths to serve them it in different ways.

IORDANOU, K. A. L. Y. P. S. O., & CONSTANTINOU, C. O. S. T. A. S. P. (2015).

Supporting use of evidence in argumentation through practice in argumentation

and reflection in the context of Socrates learning environment. Science Education,

99(2), 282–311. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.21152

In this article, new ideas are manifesting Socrates contribution to modern education are

discussed. The first idea is evidence-based learning. In evidence-based learning, the

instructors or students have to support their evidence with proof. For instance, when

talking about accidents, evidence-based leaners will accompany their assertions with

statistics. Socrates proposed the learning process should be grounded on evidence. This

point of view is held in contemporary learning environment. Within the article, the

authors experimented on how learners use evidence in argumentation. They discovered

that learners who use evidence identified resorted produced more facts to support their

position and also weaken their opponents during discussions. Another key element of

evidence-based learning is that, learners exposed to this method of learning provided

more accurate responses compared to their peers. Therefore, evidence-based learning is a

concept that applies widely in the school settings in the USA. Students provide

supporting evidence to the information they provide and that promotes the learning

process. Another Socrates’ concept in education is reflective learning. According to the

article, Socrates encouraged reflective learning environments where individuals reflect

the important lessons of life. In schools, learners reflect on different lessons by writing

down learned concepts. The instructors also give students tasks where they reflect on thehttps://doi.org/10.1002/sce.21152Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S All-caps are used only in the running head and in acronyms. Even if a database presents information in all-caps, please change it to conform to APA format. Database reference and citation information does not always conform to APA style.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S Per APA, “United States” should be spelled out when it functions as a noun and abbreviated to “U.S.” when used as an adjective.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S This should not be boldfaced here.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S It is unclear why you have the letters of there first names presented as initials.Samuel Smith143770000000158976+ You are sharing good information here that is relevant to your topic.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S Restructure this sentence so that it is grammatically correct and semantically clearer.

PHILOSOPHY AND AMERICAN CIVIL WARS 5

concepts learned. Therefore, reflective learning advocated by Socrates has found

applications in the modern learning environments. Through this method, learners

permanently grasp concepts while at the same time identify their weaknesses.

Synthesis of Articles on <Socrates>

In conclusion, Socrates ideas have impacted modern education in different ways. First,

his ideas of using knowledge to serve the interests of the entire community widely apply

presently. Educated individuals need to use their knowledge in improving the quality of life of

their societies through initiating programs that lead to life enhancement. Also, the discussion on

the love and desire of education as key motivators for youth to acquire education is true. Many

youths attend schools to acquire knowledge that will make them independent in their lives.

Further, education is perceived as the solution to life challenges that may arise in life. Education

also increases individual bargaining power and that reinforces its value. The concepts of

evidence-based arguments and reflective learning are also critical in the learning process.

Students are mandated to support their work with facts gathered from research. Further, they

need to reflect on different ideas gained during the entire learning process.

Preliminary Thesis Statement: <Name of Your Philosopher>

Socrates is the father of evidence-based learning process.

Replace This Heading with Your Selected Historical Topic

Annotated Journal Articles on <American Civil Wars>

HALL, A. N. D. R. E. W. B., HUFF, C. O. N. N. O. R., & KURIWAKI, S. H. I. R. O. (2019).

Wealth, slaveownership, and fighting for the confederacy: An empirical study of theSamuel Smith143770000000158976-S This should not be boldfaced here.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S Complete template. Read the instructions here.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S Remove bracketsSamuel Smith143770000000158976-S PROPER NOUNS & ADJECTIVES: Capitalize proper nouns in APA Style. Proper nouns include the specific names of people, places, and things. Names of racial and ethnic groups are treated as proper nouns, which means they are capitalized (e.g., African American, Asian American, Black, European American, First Nations, Hispanic, Native American, Latinx, White). Capitalize a job title or position when the title precedes a name but not when the title is used alone or after a name. See this site for more information on what APA considers proper nouns: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/capitalization/proper-nounsSamuel Smith143770000000158976-C PRELIMINARY THESIS STATEMENT: Your preliminary thesis statement is basically good. The claim that it is making, however, is well established and would not be considered disputable. At the doctoral level, a strong claim that is disputable is needed so that the writing of the manuscript is more than just reporting established factual information. The paper should have a persuasive approach in that it serves as a position statement to justify/support a claim in a similar way to how an attorney persuades a jury in a court case that a suspect is either innocent or guilty. See this YouTube video to strengthen your thesis statement: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DFp1uGTXo4Q&t=16sSamuel Smith143770000000158976-S All-caps are used only in the running head and in acronyms. Even if a database presents information in all-caps, please change it to conform to APA format. Database reference and citation information does not always conform to APA style.Samuel Smith143770000000158976+ The content you are presenting here makes for a very interesting and relevant argument for your thesis statement.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S Complete the template by removing the instructions and replacing them with your information.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S Do not use letters of the first name as if they were initials.Samuel Smith143770000000158976+ Your synthesis brings together multiple perspectives and ideas.

PHILOSOPHY AND AMERICAN CIVIL WARS 6

american Civil War. American Political Science Review, 113(3), 658–673.

https://doi.org/10.1017/s0003055419000170

American civil war in the 1860s was fought across the country. In this article the authors

evaluates the likelihood of Southerners participating in the civil wars. On one hand, they

were wealthy and could use their resources to lure blacks to fight on their behalf. On the

other hand, the southerners had large number of slaves and thus the outcome of the war

would impact them because of the reasons that resulted to the war was to abolish slavery.

According to the authors of the article, the poorer whites in the southern states were more

likely to enlist in the civil war than their wealthy counterparts. One reason why the many

poorer people participated in the American civil wars was due to the bonuses they

received for participating in the war. The confederate and Union armies provided bonuses

to Americans to lure them into joining the civil war soldiers. The technique thereby

would did not merit on luring the wealthy Southerners to participate in the war. As the

war continued, the war bonuses were raised to continue attracting the poor Americans to

enlist as soldiers and fight in the civil war. Secondly, the rich wealthy individuals

restrained from enlisting as soldiers because of the loss they would face. According to the

authors, the decision to participate in war is based on the material benefits thereafter. The

wealthy individuals and slave owners from the south were less likely to attain anything

valuable by enlisting in the wars and that is why majority of them did not participate as

soldiers.https://doi.org/10.1017/s0003055419000170Samuel Smith143770000000158976-C RELEVANCY TO EDUC 703: Review the assignment instructions and ensure that your content aligns with the purpose and learning outcomes of the course. For example, the name of this course is “Theories of Historical and Social Foundations of Education.” The course description states, “Advanced study covering the historical and philosophical principles and theories that have shaped education on a global basis.” Please review the learning outcomes on the syllabus and consider how the assignment can be revised to meet the purpose of the course.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S PROPER NOUNS & ADJECTIVES: Capitalize proper nouns in APA Style. Proper nouns include the specific names of people, places, and things. Names of racial and ethnic groups are treated as proper nouns, which means they are capitalized (e.g., African American, Asian American, Black, European American, First Nations, Hispanic, Native American, Latinx, White). Capitalize a job title or position when the title precedes a name but not when the title is used alone or after a name. See this site for more information on what APA considers proper nouns: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/capitalization/proper-nouns

PHILOSOPHY AND AMERICAN CIVIL WARS 7

Goldin, C. D., & Lewis, F. D. (1975). The economic cost of the American Civil War:

Estimates and implications. The Journal of Economic History, 35(2), 299–326.

https://doi.org/10.1017/s0022050700075070

In this article, the authors discuss the economic effect of the American Civil War.

According to the authors, the economic outcomes of the war have found a huge space in

modern discussions about the civil war. The cost incurred by the Confederate and Union

states is covered within the article. When calculating the costs of the war, the authors

determined the lives of people lost both in the confederate and union armies and the

property damaged. According to the data provided, the Federal government uses around

1.8 million dollars to finance the civil war. The local and state governments spend around

0.5 million dollars during the wars. The money was used to buy war equipment and give

to those who had enlisted as soldiers. Part of the money also paid incentives to encourage

people to enlist or re-enlist in the war. The human capital loss was around 11, 000 during

the war. The Federal government used much of its resource to provide bounty bonuses to

its soldiers and buy physical machinery for use in the war. Amid the war, numerous lives

were lost as both Confederate and Union armies lost their lives in battles. From the

article, around 360,000 thousand soldiers died from war-related causes and the number

incurred monetary loss to the Americans since the local, state and federal government had

invested in the soldiers. The war also hurt the American economy because, as the states

fought with each other, economic activities were sidelined as civilians spent much of

their time in the war.https://doi.org/10.1017/s0022050700075070Samuel Smith143770000000158976-C RELEVANCY TO EDUC 703: Review the assignment instructions and ensure that your content aligns with the purpose and learning outcomes of the course. For example, the name of this course is “Theories of Historical and Social Foundations of Education.” The course description states, “Advanced study covering the historical and philosophical principles and theories that have shaped education on a global basis.” Please review the learning outcomes on the syllabus and consider how the assignment can be revised to meet the purpose of the course.

PHILOSOPHY AND AMERICAN CIVIL WARS 8

Sanso-Navarro, M., Sanz, F., & Vera-Cabello, M. (2014). The impact of the American Civil

War on city growth. Urban Studies, 52(16), 3070–3085.

https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098014553553

This article discusses the impacts of American Civil war on American cities. Urban

centers are one of the most affected areas when civil wars arise and during the civil wars,

the American cities were affected. One of the impacts of the war in the urban centers was

decrease in American population. In the years before the war emerged, the American

population had been rising exponentially since the declaration of independence.

However, after the war erupted, the American population slowed down as more people

focused on the civil war. A reduction in population growth is also attributed to the loss of

lives that was witnessed in the cities because; war was intensified in urban centers unlike

in rural areas. The second impact of the civil wars in the American cities was that it

resulted to infrastructural damages. During the civil war, roads were sabotaged by

soldiers as a way of gaining military advantage over their enemies. It took a lot of time to

repair the infrastructure after the war. The other consequence of American war is that it

resulted to urban pollution because it culminated into urban industrialization. During the

war, many industries emerged in the USA and they dealt with arm manufacturing to

produce arms that would be used in the wars. Another consequence of the civil war on

American cities is that it created tension among the city residents.

Synthesis of Articles on <American Civil War>

Civil was caused by several factors. One of the reasons the prompted the war was the

attempts by some states to secede from the Union. Another cause of the war was the need tohttps://doi.org/10.1177/0042098014553553Samuel Smith143770000000158976-C RELEVANCY TO EDUC 703: Review the assignment instructions and ensure that your content aligns with the purpose and learning outcomes of the course. For example, the name of this course is “Theories of Historical and Social Foundations of Education.” The course description states, “Advanced study covering the historical and philosophical principles and theories that have shaped education on a global basis.” Please review the learning outcomes on the syllabus and consider how the assignment can be revised to meet the purpose of the course.

PHILOSOPHY AND AMERICAN CIVIL WARS 9

abolish or uphold the institution of slavery. Some states in the south east, mostly farmers, wanted

for slavery to continue as they benefited from labor supply while other states within the union

wanted the end of the slave institution as it humiliated the victims. Once the war began, the

Federal, state and local government paid the price. A lot of funds were directed towards the war

to fund the manufacture of war machinery. Also, the soldiers enlisting for the war received

bounty bonuses thereby raising the war costs. Lives were also lost and from the articles, it is

estimated that more than 360,000 soldiers died during the civil war. City infrastructure was also

destroyed and population growth slowed.

Preliminary Thesis Statement: <Selected Historical Topic>

American civil war caused more suffering to the poor Americans than wealthy

Americans.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-C Revise the thesis statement so that it relates to the field of education. The content of this course is the history, philosophy, and sociology of education. Please relate your Historical Topic Analysis to the purpose of the course.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-C RELEVANCY TO EDUC 703: Review the assignment instructions and ensure that your content aligns with the purpose and learning outcomes of the course. For example, the name of this course is “Theories of Historical and Social Foundations of Education.” The course description states, “Advanced study covering the historical and philosophical principles and theories that have shaped education on a global basis.” Please review the learning outcomes on the syllabus and consider how the assignment can be revised to meet the purpose of the course.

PHILOSOPHY AND AMERICAN CIVIL WARS 10

References

Araújo Batista, G. (2015). Socrates: Philosophy applied to education – search for virtue.

ATHENS JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, 2(2), 149–156. https://doi.org/10.30958/aje.2-2-5

Goldin, C. D., & Lewis, F. D. (1975). The economic cost of the American Civil War: Estimates

and implications. The Journal of Economic History, 35(2), 299–326.

https://doi.org/10.1017/s0022050700075070

HALL, A. N. D. R. E. W. B., HUFF, C. O. N. N. O. R., & KURIWAKI, S. H. I. R. O. (2019).

Wealth, slaveownership, and fighting for the confederacy: An empirical study of the

american Civil War. American Political Science Review, 113(3), 658–673.

https://doi.org/10.1017/s0003055419000170

IORDANOU, K. A. L. Y. P. S. O., & CONSTANTINOU, C. O. S. T. A. S. P. (2015).

Supporting use of evidence in argumentation through practice in argumentation and

reflection in the context of Socrates learning environment. Science Education, 99(2),

282–311. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.21152

Kelam, I., & Vučić, J. S. (2019). The applicability of the Socrates method of education in

Education Today. Pannoniana, 3(1-2), 115–145. https://doi.org/10.2478/pannonia-2019-

0008

Sanso-Navarro, M., Sanz, F., & Vera-Cabello, M. (2014). The impact of the American Civil War

on city growth. Urban Studies, 52(16), 3070–3085.

https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098014553553https://doi.org/10.30958/aje.2-2-5https://doi.org/10.1017/s0022050700075070https://doi.org/10.1017/s0003055419000170https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.21152https://doi.org/10.2478/pannonia-2019-0008https://doi.org/10.2478/pannonia-2019-0008https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098014553553Samuel Smith143770000000158976-C REFERENCE LIST: See instructions for this assignment regarding the need for a reference list and its purpose.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S REFERENCE PAGE FORMAT: See the sample paper at this site for the format of the reference list: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/paper-format/professional-annotated.pdf * HEADING FORMAT: The heading for the reference should be a Level-1 Heading, which means that it should be centered and boldfaced.

EDUC 703

Annotated Bibliography Grading Rubric

CriteriaLevels of Achievement
Content80%AdvancedProficientDevelopingNot PresentPoints Earned
Annotations — Summaries & Analyses65%90-98 pointsAll selected articles are appropriate. Reviews are clear, concise, and convey pertinent information from the article. The critical analysis is presented through the lens of professional knowledge from current course materials.82-89 pointsMost selected articles are appropriate and are sufficiently summarized. Analysis is partially based on professional knowledge.1-81 pointsSelected articles are inappropriate; and/or summaries are unclear; and/or analysis is not properly based on professional knowledge.0 pointsNot present
Synthesis & Preliminary Thesis Statements15%20-22 pointsSynthesis thoroughly integrates ideas from articles and course materials. Preliminary thesis statements are concise, disputable, and coherent.18-19 pointsSynthesis integrates ideas from articles and course materials. Preliminary thesis statements are concise and/or disputable and/or coherent.1-17 pointsSynthesis fails to sufficiently integrate ideas both from articles and from course materials. Preliminary thesis statements lack specificity and/or are answered by simple facts generally agreed upon and/or are irrelevant to the field.0 pointsNot present
Structure20%AdvancedProficientDevelopingNot PresentPoints Earned
APA, Mechanics, & Length20%28-30 pointsAssignment is free of mechanical and APA errors. 100% of the length requirement is met.25-27 pointsFew mechanical and/or APA errors exist. Length of the paper is met by 90% to 99%.1-24 pointsSeveral mechanical and/or APA errors exist. Length of the paper is met by less than 90%.0 pointsNot present
Total Points/150

Instructor’s Comments:

1. Centre the title, References, at the top of the page.

2. Double-space the list.

3. Start the first line of each reference at the left margin; indent each subsequent line five spaces (a hanging indent).

4. Put your list in alphabetical order. Alphabetize the list by the first word in the reference. In most cases, the first word will be the author’s last name. Where the author is unknown, alphabetize by the first word in the title, ignoring the words a, an, the.

5. For each author, give the last name followed by a comma and the first (and middle, if listed) initials followed by periods.

6. Italicize the titles of these works: books, audiovisual material, internet documents and newspapers, and the title and volume number of journals and magazines.

7. Do not italicize titles of most parts of works, such as: articles from newspapers, magazines, or journals / essays, poems, short stories or chapter titles from a book / chapters or sections of an Internet document.

8. In titles of non-periodicals (books, videotapes, websites, reports, poems, essays, chapters, etc), capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, and all proper nouns (names of people, places, organizations, nationalities).

9. If a web source (not from the library) is not a stable archived version, or you are unsure whether it is stable, include a statement of the accessed date before the link.

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