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QUESTIONING THEORY, SELF- KNOWLEDGE AND IGNORANCE 1

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The Theory of Questioning, Self-Knowledge and Ignorance Admission in Socrates

Education Philosophy

Name: Michael Whitener

School of Education, Liberty University

QUESTIONING THEORY, SELF- KNOWLEDGE AND IGNORANCE 2

Abstract

The paper discusses Socrates’s education philosophy. He proposed self-knowledge, questioning,

and ignorance admission as an integral component of the learning process. He live at the

Pericles’ Golden age but distanced himself from Athenian politics. His philosophy received

criticism and backing in equal measure and his education concepts apply presently.

Keywords: Theory of questioning, education philosophy, knowledge, learning,Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S Verb tense.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S See this site regarding spacing: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/paper-format/line-spacing UNNECESSARY SPACE: Remove this unnecessary space. Do not add extra space before or after sections, references, paragraphs, or headings.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S Lowercase instead of using capitalization here. For more information regarding APA guidance on capitalization, see this website: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/capitalizationSamuel Smith143770000000158976+ Nicely done abstract! It captures the key components of the paper.

QUESTIONING THEORY, SELF- KNOWLEDGE AND IGNORANCE 3

The Theory of Questioning, Self-Knowledge and Ignorance Admission

Socrates once said ‘the only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance.’ Many

scholars consider the philosopher as the father of Western philosophy and education. During his

time, Socrates contributed immensely to the development of education. In many ways, he

influenced the learning process by assisting that the first step to learning is accepting to know

nothing. Consequently, Socrates acknowledged knowing nothing and learned through

questioning (Socrates, n.d). Furthermore, he supported the implementation of evidence-based

learning in education so that students would support their points with proof. The philosopher

viewed education as an instrument to promote the quality of life not for individuals but the entire

society. However, his main contributions to education are the theory of questioning and

investigation, self-knowledge, and admitting ignorance as a way of knowing.

Background and Cultural Context

Socrates was born 469BC and died in 399 BC in Athens. He was born during the golden

age of Pericles in Greece (History, 2009). The period was characterized by massive economic

growth and Greek culture throve. Modern democracy also dates back to the golden age where

Athenians hold public officers regardless of their economic status. Socrates’ father worked as a

stonemason and his mother served as a midwife. In his early years, Socrates became passionate

about learning new ideas. He served as a foot soldier in the Greek military and showed great

bravery and resolve in his roles (History, 2009). After living in Athens for many years, he

became legendary among the city youths. The Athenian society was chiefly materialistic and

every Athenian struggled for prominence at the time. On the contrary, Socrates lived a humbleSamuel Smith143770000000158976-S CORRESPONDING CITATIONS & REFERENCES: All citations must have a corresponding entry on the reference page, and all references listed must also be cited in the body of the narrative.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S Use double quotation marks here.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S Do not italicize this.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S Do not italicize this.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S Space needed.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S See this site regarding spacing: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/paper-format/line-spacing UNNECESSARY SPACE: Remove this unnecessary space. Do not add extra space before or after sections, references, paragraphs, or headings.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S Comma.Samuel Smith143770000000158976Samuel Smith143770000000158976+ You’ve presented a clear thesis statement that is well structured and makes a strong claim.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-C REFERENCE SELECTION: It is best to use peer-reviewed journals, books, and conference papers as your main sources. Because they have been reviewed by experts in the field, they tend to be more valid and reliable than other sources that have not been peer reviewed, such as blog posts and webpages that are not tied to reliable sources. Using the LU library database will help to ensure that sources are likely more credible than those found through Google. Some red flags that a source may not be credible are as follows: * There is no author, or the author is identified by only a first name or a username. * There are no citations in the body of the article. * There are no references at the bottom. * There are multiple advertisements throughout the website.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S CITATIONS NEEDED HERE: Citations are needed to convey to your readers what your sources are for this information.

QUESTIONING THEORY, SELF- KNOWLEDGE AND IGNORANCE 4

life and questioned every belief hold by Athenians. Despite living in a highly political society

where every Athenian was hungry for power, Socrates disengaged from administrative activities

(History, 2009). Religious-wise, he was born at a time when Greece worshipped different gods.

However, Socrates did not recognize the Greek Gods. He was executed in 399BC for claims of

dishonoring Athenian gods and misleading the youths.

Philosophy of Education

One of his contributions to the philosophy of education is the theory of questioning and

investigation. According to this theory, famously called Socratic Method or technique, learners

grasp concepts better when they question themselves (Kelam and Vucic, 2019). Based on the

philosophy, during the teaching and learning process, questions should be broken down to gain a

better understanding of the issues and separate truths from lies (Socrates, n.d). In today’s

academic settings, educators use a Socratic technique to enhance learning outcomes. Moreover,

students apply the questioning technique to advance their knowledge in different fields. Thus,

Socrates invented the investigation method of learning through inquiry.

Secondly, Socrates posited that the learning process began with the admission of

ignorance. Accordingly, Socrates considered himself more intelligent than other Athenians

because he admitted knowing nothing (Socrates, n.d). His views regarding the nature of learners

are that students knew nothing and were willing to learn through investigation and questioning.

Also, according to him, a good society ought to accept being ignorant to benefit from the

learning process. During his lifetime, many poets, politicians, and other influential Athenians

were unwilling to admit their ignorance and thus, would hardly learn (Socrates, n.d). In that

respect, the educators should also accept knowing nothing and seek more knowledge to beSamuel Smith143770000000158976-S “AND” / AMPERSAND: Use “and” to separate author names when mentioned in the narrative portion of the text. NARRATIVE EXAMPLE: Martin and Smith (2021) claim that learning occurs best when . . . . However, use an ampersand (&) when multiple authors are in a parenthetical citation or on the reference page (APA Manual, Chapter 8, 8.17). See an example at this site: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/journal-article-references#1Samuel Smith143770000000158976-C INCORPORATION OF A VARIETY OF SOURCES: Integration of more sources is needed throughout to support and illustrate your ideas. Synthesizing your ideas with strong support is important in academic writing. One way to do this is to search your topics in a database of academic research journals. The website at this link has many research databases specifically for the field of education: http://www.liberty.edu/library/databases/?s=11Samuel Smith143770000000158976+ You provided sufficient personal background on Socrates and cultural context to lay a foundation for the remainder of your content.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-C AVOID BLOGS: This is a blog. Try to avoid using blogs as content sources. The problem with them is that they are not peer-reviewed, so the content may not be as valid as information from a peer-reviewed journal article. It is best to use peer-reviewed journals, books, conference papers, and dissertations as your main sources. Because they have been reviewed by experts in the field, they tend to be more valid and reliable than other sources that have not been peer reviewed, such as blog posts and webpages that are not tied to reliable sources. Using the LU library database will help to ensure that sources are likely more credible than those found through Google. Some red flags that a source may not be credible are as follows: * There is no author, or the author is identified by only a first name or a username. * There are no citations in the body of the article. * There are no references at the bottom. * There are multiple advertisements throughout the website.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S Do not italicize this.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S APPROPRIATE CITATION LEVEL: Avoid both undercitation and overcitation. Undercitation can lead to plagiarism and/or self-plagiarism. Overcitation can be distracting and is unnecessary. For example, it is considered overcitation to repeat the same citation in every sentence when the source and topic have not changed. Instead, when paraphrasing a key point in more than one sentence within a paragraph, cite the source in the first sentence in which it is relevant and do not repeat the citation in subsequent sentences as long as the source remains clear and unchanged. See https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/appropriate-citation

QUESTIONING THEORY, SELF- KNOWLEDGE AND IGNORANCE 5

effective when teaching. Hence, Socrates’ education philosophy was premised on first accepting

ignorance then seeking knowledge.

The third component of Socrates’s education philosophy is self-knowledge. He affirmed

that knowledge was the definitive asset to improve the quality of individual and societal lives. In

that context, the learners ought not only to study to excel in careers but also in bettering their

society (Socrates, n.d). Through education, students were expected to be virtuous in character.

According to the philosopher, education outweighed money in terms of relevance as it led to

happiness and goodness for all. According to his view, learners should seek education to develop

morals rather than fame in society. Moreover, education should be a guide to gain knowledge

and avoid repeating the same societal mistakes. Consequently, according to the philosophical

perspective, education ought to be transformative to individuals and society.

Theory to Practice

Socrates’s philosophy influenced other thinkers that emerged later. One of the movements

that emanated due to his philosophy was Stoicism. Stoicism supported Socrates’s postulations

that virtue was enough to create happiness. Also, the group held that knowledge was paramount

to the world and influenced all societal matters. The Skepticism movement also continued to

question the legality of believing in different gods. In his lifetime, Socrates questioned the

worship and reverence accorded to different gods. He also influenced the use of thesis and

antithesis in modern academic settings to argue against or support a position. The Socratic

method is used in the teaching and learning process.

Perspectives on DiversitySamuel Smith143770000000158976-C CITATIONS NEEDED: Please include citations to point other researchers to valid sources for this information. Citations also serve to support and strengthen a writer’s claims.Samuel Smith143770000000158976+ You’ve conveyed the key elements of Socrates’ philosophy of education in this section.Samuel Smith143770000000158976+ You’ve appropriately connected Socrates’ beliefs to practical actions taken to implement those beliefs.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-C INCORPORATION OF A VARIETY OF SOURCES: Integration of more sources is needed throughout to support and illustrate your ideas. Synthesizing your ideas with strong support is important in academic writing. One way to do this is to search your topics in a database of academic research journals. The website at this link has many research databases specifically for the field of education: http://www.liberty.edu/library/databases/?s=11

QUESTIONING THEORY, SELF- KNOWLEDGE AND IGNORANCE 6

The philosophy entails diversity in two ways. First, by proposing questioning as a means

of learning; the philosopher encouraged accommodating diverse views rather than depending on

one point of view. Secondly, Socrates’ education philosophy upholds diversity by hypothesizing

that education should be used to impart knowledge that solves the unique needs of different

societies.

Critical Analysis

Socrates’s philosophy never failed to divide views, just like any other. One of the

supporters of his philosophy was Antisthenes who echoed that virtue resulted in happiness. The

backing is true because individuals that hold to moral characters are often fulfilled by their

actions (Araujo Batista, 2015). Also, Socrates’s position that knowledge came by first admitting

ignorance is correct because individuals who fail to accept their knowledge gaps are less willing

to learn. However, there was opposition to his theory of questioning during his time. Some

famous Athenians believed that it was incorrect for Socrates to question everything because it

made them appear foolish in the eyes of the public. His inquisitive nature is partly the reason

why he was executed.

Implications and Conclusions

In summary, current educators and students should apply Socrates’ education philosophy

in the teaching and learning process. Policymakers should establish a learning system that is

based on inquiry and thorough investigation to enhance educational outcomes. Contemporarily,

knowledge is used to improve the lives of people in society as Socrates’s education philosophy

directs. Trained nurses, police, and other professionals improve the quality of life in different

ways. Possibly, the most intriguing aspect of Socrates’ education philosophy is that intelligentSamuel Smith143770000000158976-C CITATIONS NEEDED: Please include citations to point other researchers to valid sources for this information. Citations also serve to support and strengthen a writer’s claims.Samuel Smith143770000000158976+ You presented multiple perspectives in your critical analysis.Samuel Smith143770000000158976+ I appreciate how you discuss implications for current issues.

QUESTIONING THEORY, SELF- KNOWLEDGE AND IGNORANCE 7

people are those who admit knowing nothing. It is an interesting bit because intelligent people

regard themselves as knowing everything.

QUESTIONING THEORY, SELF- KNOWLEDGE AND IGNORANCE 8

References

Araújo Batista, G. (2015). Socrates: Philosophy applied to education – search for virtue.

ATHENS JOURNAL OF EDUCATION, 2(2), 149–156. https://doi.org/10.30958/aje.2-

2-5

Great thinkers on self-education: Socrates. Self Made Scholar RSS. (n.d.). Retrieved September

21, 2021, from http://selfmadescholar.com/b/2009/06/02/great-thinkers-on-self-

education-socrates/

History.com Editors. (2009, November 9). Socrates. History.com. Retrieved September 21,

2021, from https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/socrates

Kelam, I., & Vučić, J. S. (2019). The applicability of the Socrates method of education in

Education Today. Pannoniana, 3(1-2), 115–145. https://doi.org/10.2478/pannonia-2019-

0008https://doi.org/10.30958/aje.2-2-5https://doi.org/10.30958/aje.2-2-5http://selfmadescholar.com/b/2009/06/02/great-thinkers-on-self-education-socrates/http://selfmadescholar.com/b/2009/06/02/great-thinkers-on-self-education-socrates/https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/socratesSamuel Smith143770000000158976-S ITALICS FOR WHOLE WORKS & VOLUME NUMBERS: Use italics for titles of whole works that stand alone, such as books, journals, magazines, newspapers, reports, and works of art. Also use italics for volume numbers. See this site for more on when to use italics: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/italics-quotations/italicsSamuel Smith143770000000158976-S “RETRIEVED FROM” UNNECESSARY: Never use the term “Retrieved from” when the site has a publication date. Only use it with a retrieval date when there is no date on the website. You then will insert “(n.d)” where the date would typically go and insert “Retrieved [insert date] from” before the URL. See this site for examples: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/webpage-website-references#6Samuel Smith143770000000158976-5 C NUMBER OF REFERENCES: There should be five total references integrated into the paper. Please see the instructions regarding the number of references required for this assignment. The intent is to synthesize multiple sources to enhance the enrichment of your topic. While you certainly may glean valuable information from fewer sources than is required, it may become more of a “reporting” activity rather than a “synthesis of research” activity when fewer sources are integrated into the manuscript.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S HYPERLINKS: Leave links live (hyperlinked) if the work is to be published or read online. To hyperlink a URL, place your cursor immediately after it and then hit the space bar. Then test the link yourself by clicking on it to ensure that it goes directly to the article. It is not sufficient just to change the font to blue and to underline the URL. See https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/dois-urlsSamuel Smith143770000000158976-S “RETRIEVED FROM” UNNECESSARY: Never use the term “Retrieved from” when the site has a publication date. Only use it with a retrieval date when there is no date on the website. You then will insert “(n.d)” where the date would typically go and insert “Retrieved [insert date] from” before the URL. See this site for examples: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/references/examples/webpage-website-references#6Samuel Smith143770000000158976-C WEBPAGES AS REFERENCES: Webpages are becoming more acceptable as research literature, but they should be used sparingly and with a balance of more peer-reviewed journal articles and books. When webpages are used, it is best to use them from established professional associations with credible authors rather than anonymous or unknown contributors. Because they have been reviewed by experts in the field, journal articles tend to be more valid than other sources that have not been peer reviewed, such as blog posts and webpages that are not tied to reliable sources. Using the LU library database will help to ensure that sources are likely more credible than those found through internet searches.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S All-caps are used only in the running head and in acronyms. Even if a database presents information in all-caps, please change it to conform to APA format. Database reference and citation information does not always conform to APA style.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S ITALICS FOR WHOLE WORKS & VOLUME NUMBERS: Use italics for titles of whole works that stand alone, such as books, journals, magazines, newspapers, reports, and works of art. Also use italics for volume numbers. See this site for more on when to use italics: https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/italics-quotations/italicsSamuel Smith143770000000158976-S PUBLICATION DATE: The site shows a blog post date of June 2, 2009.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-C AVOID BLOGS: This is a blog. Try to avoid using blogs as content sources. The problem with them is that they are not peer-reviewed, so the content may not be as valid as information from a peer-reviewed journal article. It is best to use peer-reviewed journals, books, conference papers, and dissertations as your main sources. Because they have been reviewed by experts in the field, they tend to be more valid and reliable than other sources that have not been peer reviewed, such as blog posts and webpages that are not tied to reliable sources. Using the LU library database will help to ensure that sources are likely more credible than those found through Google. Some red flags that a source may not be credible are as follows: * There is no author, or the author is identified by only a first name or a username. * There are no citations in the body of the article. * There are no references at the bottom. * There are multiple advertisements throughout the website.Samuel Smith143770000000158976-S AUTHOR: The author of this blog post is identified as “Jamie.”

EDUC 703

Philosopher Analysis Grading Rubric

CriteriaLevels of Achievement
ContentAdvancedProficientDevelopingNot Present
Thesis Statement & Coherence28 to 30 pointsTitle, abstract, introduction, thesis statement, and conclusion are well-constructed, are coherently aligned, and are supported throughout the body of the paper.25 to 27 pointsA thesis statement is introduced; it aligns with topics in the title, body of the paper, and conclusion.1 to 24 pointsThe thesis statement is poorly introduced, is vaguely stated, and/or does not align with the title and/or body of the paper.0 ptsNot present
Background & Context28 to 30 pointsThorough contextual background is presented that is directly relevant to the ideas and actions of the educational thinker.25 to 27 pointsBasic contextual background is presented that is mostly relevant to the ideas and actions of the educational thinker.1 to 24 pointsContextual background is inadequate or is, to some degree, irrelevant to the ideas and actions of the educational thinker.0 ptsNot present
Analysis55 to 60 pointsPHILOSOPHY: Conveys a clear understanding of the philosopher’s beliefs on the purpose and outcome of education.PRACTICE: Thoroughly describes an instructional practice/teaching model, explaining the purpose/vision for why it was implemented.DIVERSITY: Addresses clearly and integrates effectively the consideration of diversity in the philosopher’s overall beliefs with implications for individuals and society.CRITIQUE: Identifies and compares opposing and other supporting views both of contemporaries and of analysts who came after the philosopher in light of a biblical worldview. Implications for current educational practice and conclusions are synthesized, properly representing the philosophy supported throughout the manuscript.50 to 54 pointsPHILOSOPHY: The philosopher’s purpose and outcome of education is outlined, and a basic notion of the philosopher’s theoretical and metaphysical aspects are introduced.PRACTICE: Describes a basic instructional practice/teaching model, explaining the purpose/vision for why it was implemented.DIVERSITY: Addresses the consideration of diversity in the overall philosophical argument but may not effectively relate it to the overall philosophical beliefs or to implications for individuals and/or society.CRITIQUE: Identifies and explains opposing or supporting views of contemporaries or of analysts who came after the philosopher but may not have done so in light of a biblical worldview. Conclusion reiterates main points of the paper.1 to 49 pointsPHILOSOPHY: The section reports basic beliefs held by the philosopher, but they may not be conveyed with clarity and/or are not directly related to the purpose or outcome of education.PRACTICE: Instructional philosophy/teaching model is vague at points and/or does not explain the purpose for implementation.DIVERSITY: Diversity issues or the lack thereof are not properly addressed with implications to the individual and/or society.CRITIQUE: Identifies opposing or supporting views of contemporaries or of analysts who came after the philosopher but may not have done so in light of a biblical worldview; and/or a sufficient explanation of other views is vague or lacks development; and/or conclusion does not align with the introduction, thesis statement, title, and body of the paper.0 ptsNot present
StructureAdvancedProficientDevelopingNot present
APA, Mechanics, Length28 to 30 pointsPaper is free of mechanical and APA errors. 100% of the length requirement is met. 25 to 27 pointsFew mechanical and/or APA errors exist. Length of the paper is met by 90% to 99%.1 to 24 pointsSeveral mechanical and/or APA errors exist. Length of the paper is met by less than 90%.0 ptsNot present

1. Centre the title, References, at the top of the page.

2. Double-space the list.

3. Start the first line of each reference at the left margin; indent each subsequent line five spaces (a hanging indent).

4. Put your list in alphabetical order. Alphabetize the list by the first word in the reference. In most cases, the first word will be the author’s last name. Where the author is unknown, alphabetize by the first word in the title, ignoring the words a, an, the.

5. For each author, give the last name followed by a comma and the first (and middle, if listed) initials followed by periods.

6. Italicize the titles of these works: books, audiovisual material, internet documents and newspapers, and the title and volume number of journals and magazines.

7. Do not italicize titles of most parts of works, such as: articles from newspapers, magazines, or journals / essays, poems, short stories or chapter titles from a book / chapters or sections of an Internet document.

8. In titles of non-periodicals (books, videotapes, websites, reports, poems, essays, chapters, etc), capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, and all proper nouns (names of people, places, organizations, nationalities).

9. If a web source (not from the library) is not a stable archived version, or you are unsure whether it is stable, include a statement of the accessed date before the link.

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