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The student must post 3 separate replies to 3 different students of at least 400 words by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of the assigned Module: Each reply must incorporate at least 1 scholarly citation in APA format. Any sources cited must have been published within the last five years. Acceptable sources include scholarly journal articles.

The replies are to a peer of the discussion subjects listed below, see separate attachment on the 3 separate replies.

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Responding to a classmate’s post requires both the addition of new ideas and analysis. A particular point made by the classmate must be addressed and built upon by your analysis in order to move the conversation forward.

Using relevant scholarly journal articles, research and discuss the following prompts. 

1. A distributed database is a collection of several different databases distributed among multiple computers. Discuss why a company would want a distributed database.

2. Productivity increases as rapid response times are achieved. Discuss what is considered an acceptable system response time for interactive applications.

3. A fully centralized data processing facility is centralized in many senses of the word. Discuss the key characteristics of centralized data processing facilities.

4. Equipment and communication redundancies are common in today’s data centers. Discuss the major types of equipment and communication redundancies found in today’s data centers.

The student must post 3 separate replies to 3 different students of at least 400 words by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of the assigned Module: Each reply must incorporate at least 1 scholarly citation in APA format. Any sources cited must have been published within the last five years. Acceptable sources include scholarly journal articles.

The replies are to a peer of the discussion subjects listed below, see separate attachment on the 3 separate replies.

Responding to a classmate’s post requires both the addition of new ideas and analysis. A particular point made by the classmate must be addressed and built upon by your analysis in order to move the conversation forward.

Using relevant scholarly journal articles, research and discuss the following prompts. 

1. A distributed database is a collection of several different databases distributed among multiple computers. Discuss why a company would want a distributed database.

2. Productivity increases as rapid response times are achieved. Discuss what is considered an acceptable system response time for interactive applications.

3. A fully centralized data processing facility is centralized in many senses of the word. Discuss the key characteristics of centralized data processing facilities.

4. Equipment and communication redundancies are common in today’s data centers. Discuss the major types of equipment and communication redundancies found in today’s data centers.

The student must then post a reply of at least 400 words by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of the assigned Module: Each reply must incorporate at least 1 scholarly citation in APA format. Any sources cited must have been published within the last five years.

The reply can be from any one of the paragraphs listed below but 400 words with 1 scholarly citation

Reply to : Victoria Reyes

Discussion Module 2

In a business, some of the most common concerns that a company leader has are efficiency and reliability of their software or equipment in order to keep a system up and running. Additionally, the way the company remains successful is by upholding its ability to be competitive. Some methods of doing that is by ensuring that the customers are satisfied with their products. In ensuring a customer is satisfied, one of the items to take into consideration is the response time when creating an interactive application or system. Another is proper delineation and separation of information among public and private areas, which a distributed database is used for.

Alternatively, another type of processing is centralized data processing where rather than disbursing the data among several databases, it is all stored in one with several redundancies and backups. Sometimes, it can be more efficient when there is one place where the data gets processed such as a centralized data processing facility, rather than on any particular device. Additionally at a centralized data processing facility, there are already established methods for processing and transmitting the data in a highly efficient manner. Lastly, reliability is dependent upon redundancy and alternative methods for the data to be transmitted such as alternative equipment to utilize when one system goes down in the building. When compartmentalization is utilized, there is a greater opportunity for success in the data center. Even on a U.S. Navy Warship, there was compartmentalization of the electricity grid. That was changed over time because of an incident where a shipwreck caused the entire ships power to go down. There was no redundancy, so they were left without any electric power. Now, the ships are created in various sections in order to prevent an outage of the entire ship at once. Conversely, if there are no redundancies, if one path stopped working suddenly, the entire system would stop working and many users would be left dissatisfied. It could also result in a loss of a lot of money and a security risk. To avoid displeasing users, data centers must be built with redundant systems and equipment as well as communication mechanisms. 

A distributed database is often used by companies who would like to promulgate or store large amounts of information while keeping it safe and out of the wrong hands. In a study on e-learning, where a high amount of resources are required, researchers concluded that a distributed database was deemed useful to make this technique of teaching more efficient and cost-effective because of data replication and the globalization process (Sathishkumar, 2021). Since there is a large amount of redundant data, there tends to be a lot of duplicate information that needs to be categorized or classified. If not properly sorted through, the repetitive data can cause confusion for some people who are looking through the databases and decrease efficiency. As a result, some researchers are developing different methods and algorithms to extract information that is necessary and accurate, to help ensure efficiency for the company, which will encourage them to continue utilizing a distributed database system (Chen, 2018, p. 439). Since this database allows access on multiple computers at once, companies prefer to use a distributed database because it helps with performance and allocating resources especially when a corporation must store and manage computation-heavy workloads (Abebe et al., 2020, p. 3573). Some other benefits to utilizing distributed databases is that they help “manage business velocity, avoid data lock-in, and keep sensitive data on-premise and insensitive data in public clouds” (Mansouri et al., 2020, p. 2). By maintaining the sensitive and confidential information within a private network and the public information outside the private network, companies build trust among their users and their clients, which tends to attract more and boost their ability to be competitive among other companies.

Productivity is another aspect that plays a vital role in making a company efficient, especially in technology where there is a lot of user interaction. Many successes are dependent on pleasing or satisfying a user with a quick and efficient system or software and user-friendly interface. To ensure competitiveness is upheld, users must be kept satisfied with an acceptable system response time for interactive applications or better. In my workplace in the United States Navy, when a Sailor or a team succeeds at something, they tend to become motivated and work harder next time, which ultimately increases productivity because more gets accomplished. The same thing occurs with any business as response times for any application improve or become faster, the developers or managers of this application become more motivated to continue improving their product and the users are satisfied, therefore wanting to buy more. When the workers become motivated and improve the response time, productivity among the users also tends to increase because less time is spent waiting for the response to come back from the server.

According to Stallings and Case (2013), an acceptable response time is from 0 to 10 seconds with anything under three seconds being the best-case scenario because of its ability to maintain the user’s attention. Above 3 seconds, concentration begins to deteriorate and ultimately anything past 10 seconds would leave the user dissatisfied (Stallings & Case, 2013, p. 57). Much of the response time is out of the company’s control; however, it is dependent highly on how fast the Internet is going and what the traffic flow looks like. Oftentimes if a server is overloaded and traffic is congested, it creates an issue in the response times of the server because it is trying to process everything as quickly as possible, but sometimes it is not good enough for the user (Modos et al., 2016, p. 95). Since technology is constantly advancing and considering how much we use it, we as customers expect the internet to be fast and easy to use. Additionally, we expect the network to be able to keep up with the new innovations. Otherwise, they will complain, and a company will be deemed untrustworthy because they are not providing for the customers desires or needs. If the distributed database is not the best method for a company, there are more methods of processing and transmitting data such as centralized data processing.

With centralized data processing facilities, it removes the processing from each end device and focuses sending the data to this facility to be processed by its computers and software. This allows for the data processing to be standardized as well as facilitated and less costly. By standardizing the process, a customer or user is more likely to see better and more consistent results because not only is it a centralized process, but it has its own control system and authority as well as support staff (Stallings & Case, 2013). Many companies are reverting back to centralized facilities and data centers because of all the benefits that they bring, such as redundancies in the equipment because it is used to create security for the data in both the information and the equipment being used (Stallings & Case, 2013, p. 73). Additionally, the centralized data centers tend to be cheaper in price and have a lot more power as well as storage space because of the ability to do in-memory computing (Stallings & Case, 2013, p. 73). Regardless, the amount of data that the internet is having to process nowadays is so vast because of how many smartphones, laptops, computers and other wireless devices are being utilized (Chen et al., 2018, p. 59). In it being so vast, it is more prone to issues where the network becomes unavailable. There are constantly new methods that are being produced so that the network and the processing facilities can keep up with the customers and remain successful.

In maintaining success, a company must prepare for the worst-case scenario, if everything were to get shut down or flood. The equipment and ways to communicate must be available When a company can eliminate unavailability by having several pieces of the same equipment, they can become the most successful and competitive. By having redundant systems in both communications and equipment, we reduce the vulnerability for an adversary to exploit the company or steal the ideas (Gao et al., 2020). In today’s data centers, some major equipment that has redundancies includes power supplies, and environmental controls such as air conditioning to ensure that the computer systems are being properly cooled. Hardware must stay cool in order to continue operating well for an extended period of time, so it is important that the air conditioning is working properly or else the system goes down altogether. Other redundancies that data centers also have include the electrical equipment to keep the network up and running and be able to send data out from the centralized facility. Most data centers need to have backup equipment in locations apart from where the main data center is located, which is why third parties exist. Regardless, an electrical outage or communication outage can cause serious problems for a business, which is why it is important to have these systems with redundancies.

Many businesses have the option of choosing between the distributed data processing or centralized data processing. More recently, it has been shown that because of redundancies and a more efficient system using data centers has proven the centralized data processing facilities to be more effective. It is important to have efficiency as well as accuracy and reliability. With a backup mitigation plan to prevent mishaps and outages, a company can be successful, productive and competitive. Additionally, the response times can continue to improve so that user satisfaction is high and productivity among the workers is high. As hardware and software continue to evolve, managers and companies must find ways to keep up with the demands of the technology world.

The student must then post a reply of at least 400 words by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of the assigned Module: Each reply must incorporate at least 1 scholarly citation in APA

format. Any sources cited must have been published within the last five years.

The reply can be from any one of the paragraphs listed below but 400 words with 1 scholarly citation

Reply to : Saeng Su Kwon

Today, I’ll discuss little bit about distributed database. I’ll try to divide into sections to discuss distributed database.

1. An overview of distributed databases

“A distributed database appears to a user as a single database but is, in fact, a set of databases stored on multiple computers. The data on several computers can be simultaneously accessed and modified using a network. Each database server in the distributed database is controlled by its local DBMS, and each cooperates to maintain the consistency of the global database.” (Distributed Databases) In the 1990s, the technology of distributing and storing a database and recognizing it as a single database and using it was recognized as an advanced technology with a high degree of difficulty. In 2000, there were many companies who wanted to research and introduce distributed databases as if they were recognizing cloud computing and SOA (Service Oriented Architecture). As the Database Management System, DBMS, function became stronger and the network speed increased, the distributed database did not spread as much as initially expected, but many databases still use the distributed database through the sharing system between databases over the network. There are many companies using distributed systems and I can tell you big six different companies such as Netflix, Uber, eBay, Zalando, Amazon, and SoundCloud etc. For example I want to share the words that Werner Vogels said who is Amazon CTO right now. He said “The giant, monolithic “bookstore” application and giant database that we used to power Amazon.com limited our speed and agility. Whenever we wanted to add a new feature or product for our customers, like video streaming, we had to edit and rewrite vast amounts of code on an application that we’d designed specifically for our first product—the bookstore. This was a long, unwieldy process requiring complicated coordination, and it limited our ability to innovate fast and at scale” (Werner Vogels, Amazon CTO) Now, I’ll talk about the definition of distributed database and is as follows.

· A database that can be used as a single virtual machine by using a database that is distributed in several places.

· A collection of data logically belonging to the same system, but physically distributed over a computer network. Physical site distribution, logical user integration and sharing. In other words, a distributed database can be defined as a database that maximizes usability/performance by locating the database to multiple nodes in multiple regions using a fast network environment that connects databases.

2. Distributed Database Transparency

“Distribution transparency is the property of distributed databases by the virtue of which the internal details of the distribution are hidden from the users. The DDBMS designer may choose to fragment tables, replicate the fragments and store them at different sites. However, since users are oblivious of these details, they find the distributed database easy to use like any centralized database.” (DDBMS)

To become a distributed database, six transparency requirements must be satisfied.

1. Split Transparency (fragmentation): One logical relation is split into multiple fragments so that a copy of each fragment is stored in multiple sites.

2. Location Transparency: No need to specify where the data you want to use is stored. Location information must be maintained in the System Catalog.

3. Transparency of local ideology: Mapping between local DBMS and physical DB is guaranteed. Names independent of each local system name can be used.

4. Duplicate Transparency: The property of not needing to know if a DB object is duplicated in multiple sites.

5. Failure Transparency: Maintaining transaction atomicity regardless of component (DBMS, Computer) failure.

6. Parallel Transparency: Maintaining consistency of results when performing multiple transactions simultaneously.

As with traditional distributed database construction, it is rare these days to build a database in a distributed environment while satisfying all the above characteristics. Recently, there are more cases of building a database by integrating rather than building a database in a distributed environment. Nevertheless, if the database of the above distributed environment is used appropriately according to the business and regional characteristics, it has the characteristics of providing various advantages. It is being used usefully.

3. Distributed database application method and advantages and disadvantages

“Database systems have evolved from data processing in which each application to define and maintain their own data, to one in which the data are defined and managed centrally. This new orientation leads to independent data, such applications become immune to changes in physical or logical data organization and vice versa.” (Distributed Databases and Distributed Database Management Systems) In this section, I’ll talk about how to apply distributed database and pros and cons about distributed database.

· How to apply distributed database

· The way to use the database in a distributed environment with excellent performance and value in the field is to look at the flow of work and configure the database according to the architectural characteristics according to the work configuration. The purpose is not simply to build a database in a distributed environment, but the ability to selectively design the database distribution structure according to the characteristics of the business. When looking at only these aspects, it can be understood as meaning database structure design (architecture) rather than database distributed design.

· Distributed database pros and cons

· Pros

· Local autonomy, incremental system capacity expansion

· Reliability and Availability

· Efficacy and flexibility

· Fast response speed and reduced communication cost

· Increase the availability and reliability of your data

· Proper sizing of the system

· Increase acceptance of the needs of users in each region

· Cons

· Software development cost

· Increased potential for errors

· Increase in processing cost

· Complexity and cost of design and management

· Irregular response speed

· Difficulty in control

· Threats to data integrity

4. Direction of use of distributed database

Distributed database is an advanced technology applied in the recent database environment where business functions are diversified, and the amount of data increases exponentially. According to the characteristics of the business, the technology that utilizes a distributed database is required. In Why Use Distributed Computing it talks about ‘Can Distributed Computing Enhance my Performance?’ and it talks about how distributed computing works in different machines. “Distributed computing allows different users or computers to share information. Distributed computing can allow an application on one machine to leverage processing power, memory, or storage on another machine. It is possible that distributed computing could enhance performance of a stand-alone application, but this is often not the reason to distribute an application.” (Why Use Distributed Computing, 1996-99)

5. The value of distributed database configuration

The most important value when data is configured in a distributed environment is that it provides fast performance that cannot be provided by an integrated database. By establishing a distributed database environment, it becomes possible to provide fast performance by building a distributed database environment for the reasons of network load and transaction concentration caused by accessing and processing remote servers or other servers. It is for this reason that a database of a distributed environment is built. Data is very important in our lives now and every data has a value. In this article it shares the benefits of using a distributed database architecture. “With data becoming an essential aspect of our lives, distributed databases lie at the heart of every organization’s data infrastructure. In most cases, end-users interacting with a web service or a mobile application might not see a distributed database in action” (The Why and How of Distributed Databases, 2020)

6. Distributed database application technique

Types of database distribution include table location distribution, table partition distribution, table replication distribution, and table summary distribution strategy. Among them, it is the most used method of table replication, partitioning and distribution, and this method is the most useful technical method applied to many databases with poor performance. To design a database in a distributed environment, it can be designed in the form of performing integrated data modeling and distributing or replicating tables by region or server according to the business characteristics of each table. Transparency in distributed database system is also the technique you can use in the distributed database system. “With minimal effort, you can develop applications that make an Oracle Database distributed database system transparent to users that work with the system. The goal of transparency is to make a distributed database system appear as though it is a single Oracle Database.” (Distributed Database Application Development)

6.1 Distribution of table

· Table position distribution does not change the table structure. Also, tables are not created as duplicates in other databases. However, the designed tables are positioned differently. The location distribution for each table is used when the form of using information is different for each location. Since the location of the table differs by location, a schematized database document for each location is required to determine the location of the table.

6.2 Table Fragmentation Distribution

· Table Partitioning Distribution is a method of splitting and distributing each table rather than simply locating it in a different place. The method of partitioning and distributing a table is divided into two types according to the criteria for dividing the table. The first is Horizontal Fragmentation, which divides the table into rows, and the second is Vertical Fragmentation, which divides the table into columns.

6.3 Table Replication Distribution

· Table Replication Distribution is a type of creating and managing the same table in different regions or servers at the same time.

In the master database, there is segment replication, in which only the contents of a part of a table in the master database are in other regions or servers, and there is broadcast replication in which the contents of tables in the master database exist in each region or server.

· Segment Replication: It has a unified table in one place (headquarters) and each branch has a row corresponding to the branch. The data that exists in the branch office must exist in the head office. In other words, the head office data is the sum of the branch office data. Not only is it easy to process data in each branch, but the integrated table in the head office is also used for integrated processing of all data, so it is possible to quickly perform a task that does not involve JOINs in multiple tables.

· Broadcast Replication: It has a unified table in one place (headquarters), and each branch has all the same data as the head office. The data that exists in the branch office must exist in the head office. The amount of data in all branches and the amount of data in the head office are the same. Since both the head office and the branch have the same information, there are no special restrictions on the head office or branch or data processing.

· Broadcast replication is also a database distribution technique often used in actual projects. In the case of partial replication, data input, modification, and deletion occur at the branch office, so there are many methods used by the head office, whereas in the case of broadcast replication, data is input, modified, and deleted at the head office and used by the branch office. The difference is, as with partial replication, it takes a lot of time to replicate data and causes a load on the database and server, so it is usually replicated by batch rather than copying by on-line processing.

6.4 Table Summarization Distribution

· Table Summarization Distribution is when data is similar but different types exist between regions or between servers. According to the summary method, rollup summarization is a method that produces integrated data using the same distributed data while having the same table structure, and the integrated data using distributed data of different contents. There is a consolidation summarization method that calculates

7. Examples of improved performance by applying a distributed database

There are many ways to improve performance in distributed database and GeeksforGeeks said this is one of them “We can achieve interquery and intraquery parallelism by executing multiple queries at different sites by breaking up a query into a number of subqueries that basically executes in parallel which basically leads to improvement in performance.” (Advantages of distributed database, 2019) When performing a project, it is often the case that performance is degraded by designing a database without understanding the principle of a simple distributed environment. If the principle of distribution of replication is applied simply, the performance can be improved and designed where there are many business characteristics. Database distribution design is effective when applied in the following cases.

· It should be applied to sites where performance is important.

· If a distributed environment is configured for common code, reference information, master data, etc., the performance is improved.

· This is good when real-time synchronization is not required. Distributed environment can be configured even with near real time business characteristics.

· It is good to distribute the load when the load is concentrated on a specific server.

· When configuring the backup side (Disaster Recovery Site), it can be configured by simply applying the distribution function.

References

Distributed Databases. Distributed databases. (n.d.). Retrieved September 28, 2021, from https://docs.oracle.com/cd/A57673_01/DOC/server/doc/SCN73/ch21.htm

DDBMS – Distribution Transparency. (n.d.). Retrieved September 28, 2021, from https://www.tutorialspoint.com/distributed_dbms/distributed_dbms_distribution_tran sparency.htm.

Distributed Database and Distributed Database Management Systems. Advantages and disadvantages of distributed database systems. (n.d.). Retrieved September 28, 2021, from https://www.ipl.org/essay/Advantages-And-Disadvantages-Of-Distribut ed-Database-Systems-PJGJECNGSWU.

Jim Watson, [email protected] and R. A. (n.d.). [8] why use distributed COMPUTING (part of the CORBA faq, Copyright © 1996-99). Why Use Distributed Computing [UPDATED!]. Retrieved September 28, 2021, from https://www4.cs.fau.de/~geier/corba-faq/why-distrib-computing.html.

The why and how of distributed databases. Fauna. (n.d.). Retrieved September 28, 2021, from https://fauna.com/blog/the-why-and-how-of-distributed-databases.

Oracle® Database Administrator’s Guide. (n.d.). Distributed Database Application Development. Distributed database application development. Retrieved September 28, 2021, from https://docs.oracle.com/cd/E18283_01/server.112/e17120/ds_concepts005.htm.

Advantages of distributed database. GeeksforGeeks. (2019, April 30). Retrieved September 28, 2021, from https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/advantages-of-distributed-database/.

6 companies pioneering the use of distributed systems. Scalac. (2020, August 26). Retrieved September 28, 2021, from https://scalac.io/blog/6-companies-using-distributed- systems/.

The student must then post a reply of at least 400 words by 11:59 p.m. (ET) on Sunday of the assigned Module: Each reply must incorporate at least 1 scholarly citation in APA format. Any sources cited must have been published within the last five years.

The reply can be from any one of the paragraphs listed below but 400 words with 1 scholarly citation

Reply to : Sir-Cosby Otabil

Database processing in organizations

The innovation of technology across the world has been of significant impact in many sectors. Many organizations have benefited from this advancement. For instance, the online platform has created a rapport for businesses to engage in eCommerce, which reaches out to the global market. Also, the data storage devices have been improved and sophisticated to provide more efficient services. However, technological advancement has attracted a fair share of backlashes, such as cyber bullies and data breaches. Again there are risks associated with technical features such as online data storage. A slight mistake might lose massive and critical data belonging to a company. Technocrats have created several databases and availed them for utilization by many organizations which adopted the technology. Database processing includes the capturing and storage of data as well as access and distribution. This paper analyzes the data processing aspects and their essentiality in business organizations.

Why a Company Would Want a Distributed Database

A distributed database is a type of management that allows shared and storage in different locations, either geographically or within the organization but other computers. This data transparency will enable one to access and utilize the application from different computers using the same data. The distributed data provides autonomy and flexibility so that apart from accessing, one can monitor, manipulate and ensure the security of the data from different devices and locations (Lotfi, 2019). Also, this aspect allows data recovery in the event of a failure by one machine. Notably, the absence of computer network connections does not influence the data availability or access to the application from other devices.

One essential need for the distributed data in companies is that it facilitates fast and effective performance. Arguably, many applications are subject to fail sometimes. The bottlenecks imposed by the centralized database would cause a delay in all other outlets which depend on the main central server. On the other hand, the system does not need a central computer to serve others with a response with a distributed database. The automated processing of data in all computers facilitates progressive performance despite the failure of one machine (Abdalla & Karabatak, 2020). Besides, the distribution of data improves the application’s response time. This independent progressive running of activities in the organization reduces the chances of complaints from clients over delayed responses or weak customer attention.

The distributed database depends on the database software to control the activities of all computers. This enables massive scaling, both vertically and horizontally. For instance, if the organization wishes to add extra services in their portal, the technical team can scale the program vertically from the manager’s office to the customer service desk and vice versa (Sinaeepourfard et al., 2019). Furthermore, computers that need the same update, such as departments, can be serviced faster, horizontally across the organization. On the other hand, the centralized database allows only vertical scaling. Hence many organizations need a distributed database for efficiency.

A distributed database is essential to providing full-time reliability of the applications. Notably, online services run 24 hours a day. Hence online data consumers need services all through. The distributed database ensures the distribution of information across many servers when there is no human guidance to facilitate the process. The system also acts against one individual server’s complications to prevent hiccups on clients’ entire activity of data consumption.

Acceptable System Response Time for Interactive Applications

A one-second response time is a maximum period customers would take to wait for an application. Any time delay beyond that, clients would not take lightly, and the consequences would also be hazardous (Maheshwari et al., 2018). Response time from the application has a significant attribute to the overall customer satisfaction and production. Reviewing the reaction time in every application is critical to maintaining a good reputation in customer service. Also, the kind of information relayed don the customers are subject to review. For instance, some pop messages would preferably have a shorter response duration than the data processing output messages. However, in whichever case, the response time should not exceed the typical client’s expectation.

The Key Characteristics of Centralized Data Processing Facilities

A centralized database has several factors under one control. The whole process of information storage, release, and organization of the data is achieved from one central unit. The system has a master server that serves the others upon request and can end their operation from the main point. The first aspect of a centralized database is one personal computer or a group of computers that act as the central distributor of the information (Rehman et al., 2018). These computers have one or more operators who oversee the actions and progress of the other computers. The central computers also share information with the other computers. These computers in the organization are connected through either LAN or WAN, with the main server (Pramanik et al., 2018). Notably, the failure or dysfunction of the server implicates the total collapse of all the other dependent computers. However, the dysfunction of any computer does not bring any effect to the server computers. However, if the laptop is linked to other computers, it may cause abnormally in the functioning of the programs in the other computers.

Another significant aspect of central database facilities is that they assemble and prepare all other database elements together. The main unit acts as the central supply center to the dependent computers and end-user devices. For instance, the server’s connection or the central computer to the other computers originates from the main database center. From the system, the cables are connected to share the information and the application technology with the other computers.

Another attribute found in the central database center is the information. The server acts as the information center and channels data to the other computers. The information requested by the associate computers is stored in the servers and determine accessibility by the other computers. Typically, the staff can only retrieve customer transactions from the server computer in organizations where the database is connected centrally. The information kept by the central computer exceeds that which is available for the dependent computers. Again, the data captured by the dependent computers is also submitted to the computers for reserve storage and future references. Some actions are limited only to be undertaken in the central computers, under strict authorization. The supply computer is vital because it pools together or critical data, which sometimes may be lost by the dependent computers.

Another aspect of the central database center is that it controls the other operations and devices. It is the watchtower regulating the actions of all other data outlets. The control includes limiting some activity of the other computers and how they operate. Also, the central computer may control how the application works in the other computers, for instance, when one computer functions abnormally. An additional attribute of the database control center is that it brings together care staff. These staffs facilitate different actions required in the service of the customers and the operators of the other computers. Usually, the team in the central system has adequate knowledge in using the application or processing actions in the other computers and the server computer. Therefore, the staff is reasonable and put together to offer immediate response upon call by the operators at the other end. Also, the team may engage in customer response through the server computer when the others fail.

The Major Types of Equipment and Communication Redundancies Found in Today’s Data Centers

Redundancies act as data replicators to distribute them in several devices for several functions. The redundancy options are put in place to create a backup plan when the regular networks or data source functionality is hindered (Xu et al., 2018). The operation involves sharing the same information and programs with several backup devices for business efficiency. The actual redundancies are the primary essential backups needed by the organization to run normally, even when the primary source fails. Such backups include water and power backup plans. The organization could acquire tanks or water storage. Also, the firm may purchase power backup utilities like generators and Ups.

Other types of redundancies include organizational and office redundancies. These strategies are availed to back up system failure in several aspects such as communications. For instance, when the desk telephone fails to work, the company may invest in mobile phones for reserve communications and avoid a total shutdown of the daily activities. Also, investing in backup internet options such as mobile data bundles are significant features on the organizational redundancies (Feng & Li, 2021). Also, office redundancy includes securing portable devices for the company, such as laptops for data storage and reserved utility when the desktop computers fail.

To conclude, the database and technological system of an organization is critical in any organization. The arrangement of data retrieval strategies and how an application’s information is available is crucial for the firm. The company’s programs are critical since customers gain satisfaction from the quality of the service they get. For instance, the reaction time of an application or software determines much on how clients will use it.

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