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Use of proper APA formatting and citations. If supporting evidence from outside resources is used those must be properly cited.

Share a personal connection that identifies specific knowledge and theories from this course.

Demonstrate a connection to your current work environment. If you are not employed, demonstrate a connection to your desired work environment. 

Organizational Leadership

John Bratton

Part 1

Contextualising leadership

The nature of leadership

Chapter 1

3

Learning outcomes

After completing this chapter, you should be able to:

Explain the nature of leadership and the apparent difference between leadership and management

Explain the essence of classical and contemporary trends in leadership theories

Discuss how the trends in leadership theories are connected to changes in global capitalism competing theories of organizational design

4

Introduction

Many of today’s challenges are complex and the public look upon leaders for solutions or for someone to blame when crises present themselves.

With organizational change seems near-constant and necessitates leadership, this book critically examines the role of leaders in managing organizational change and people across different contexts in both private and public organizations and, in an area which is less frequently studied, in promoting innovation and pro-environmental change in the context of managerial rationales, constraints and opportunities.

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Defining leadership

2000 years ago,

The first serious attempt to develop a theory of leadership can be found in Plato’s The Republic (Grint, 1997).

16th- century,

Machiavelli’s The Prince attached great importance to the role of leaders in shaping societal events.

Over the centuries,

Examples illustrating the central role of individual leaders is repetitively found in English history such as Winston Churchill in the Second World War.

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Defining leadership

This continuous interest in leadership is the very common assumption that ‘great’ leaders profoundly shape events in society. Plus, the growth of industrial capitalism give rise in the studies of organizational leadership.

20th century,

Leadership research is further driven by both the military and manufacturing demands of two world wars, the development of the capitalist global economy and the preoccupation of organizations and government with competitiveness.

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Defining leadership

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Competing Definitions of Organizational Leadership

Behaviour

Leadership may be defined as the behaviour of an individual while he [sic] is involved in directing group activities (Hemphill and Coons, 1957, p. 7).

Leadership… acts by persons which influence other persons in a shared direction (Seeman, 1960, p. 53).

Power

Leadership is a particular type of power relationship characterized by a group member’s perception that another group member has the right to prescribe behaviour patterns for the former regarding his [sic] activity as a member of a particular group (Janda, 1960, p. 358).

Process

Leadership is the reciprocal process of mobilizing by persons with certain motives and values, various economic, political, and other resources, in a context of competition and conflict, in order to realize goals independently or mutually held by both leaders and followers (Burns, 1978, 425).

Leadership is a formal or informal contextually rooted and goal-influencing process that occurs between a leader and a follower, groups of followers, or institutions (Antonakis and Day, 2018, 5).

Traits / Attributes

Interaction Interaction between specific traits of one person and other traits of the many, in such a way that the course of action of the many is changed by the one (Bogardus, 1934, p. 3).

Defining leadership

For the purposes of this book, we use the following definition:

Organizational leadership is a process of influencing within an employment relationship involving ongoing human interaction with others wherein those others consent to achieve a goal.

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Defining leadership

The definition captures the following information:

Organizational leadership is a dialectical process (act) embedded in a context of both cooperation and structural conflict, which may affect the style of leadership adopted. Process also implies that a leader affects and is affected by the ‘psychological contract’, a metaphor for a perceived set of expectations and understandings between employees and employers, an important concept in people management (Rousseau, 1995).

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Defining leadership

Leadership is an influencing process occurring both directly and indirectly among others within formal employment relations.

The influence process may involve only a single leader, such as a CEO, or it may encompass numerous leaders in the organization.

It is ultimately concerned with achieving a particular goal, and goal achievement will be a measure of its effectiveness.

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Leadership and management

Questions like what do managers do and what do leaders do helps us to understand their roles. A manager therefore can undertake a diverse range of roles within an organization. It is important to note here that more than one individual can perform a leadership role. That is, leadership can be shared or distributed in the organization. The opportunity to perform certain roles will depend on the manager’s position in the organization’s hierarchy, the nature of the work undertaken and the level of education of her or his co-workers.

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Leadership and management

Role of Managers

Central to achieving control and decision by mainstream management literature

Deal with uncertainties, resistance and conflicts by critical studies

Analysing and designing work systems that minimized skill requirements while maximizing management control over the workforce by Frederick W. Taylor (1911)

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Leadership and management

Classic Fayolian Management Cycle (PDOC) by Henry Fayol

Three set of behaviours by Mintzberg (1989)

Interconnected Three Dimensional Model by Squires (2001)

It is also note that critical studies studies have challenged the universality of managerial behaviour, and have emphasized the importance of factoring into the analysis of management diversity: including gender, race, sexuality and consideration of cultural mores that prevail.

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Leadership and management

Roles of Leaders

Although both ‘managing’ and ‘leading’ can potentially coexist in the same individual, mainstream leadership scholars since Zaleznik’s (1977) have argued that managers and leaders are in fact different and that leadership and management are different.

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Leadership and management

Role of ManagersRole of Leaders
Acting as the figureheadEstablishing direction
Liaising with other managersCommunicating direction
Developing subordinatesEncouraging emotion
PlanningEmpowering others
Handling conflictsInfluencing
NegotiatingChallenging status quo
Monitoring informationMotivating and inspiring others
Directing subordinatesModelling the direction
Allocating resourcesBuilding a team
Produces potential predictabilityProduces radical change

Based on Hales (1986), Kotter (2012) and Kouzes and Posner (2017).

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Leadership and management

Leaders create a vision and the strategy to achieve vs Managers choose the means to implement the vision created by the leader.

Leaders operate at an emotional level, seeking to appeal to followers’ emotions vs Managers operate logically and value rationality.

Leaders encourage empowerment vs Managers encourage compliance.

Leadership is a value-laden activity vs Management is not.

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Leadership and management

Leaders are change agents associated with ‘episodic’ (Weick and Quinn, 1999) / ‘revolutionary’ (Burke, 2014) / vuja de (never seen before) (Grint, 2006) vs Managers are associated with ‘continuous’ or ‘evolutionary’ change / déjà vu (seen before). Kouzes and Posner (1997), also mentioned that exemplary leadership entails ‘challenging the process’.

Bernard Bass (1990) observed that not all managers lead and not all leaders manage, and an employee, without being a formal manager, may be a leader.

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Mapping the changing study of leadership

Literatures about what leaders should do – contains theories for leaders – primarily normative, providing how to prescriptions for improving leadership effectiveness.

Literatures about what leaders actually do – contains theories of leadership – primarily analytical, directed at better understanding leadership processes, explaining why they vary in different circumstances and the ‘platforms’ (ship) that leaders create to enable others to act as leaders

(Antonacopulou and Bento, 2011; Dinh et al. 2014; Ford, 2015)

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Mapping the changing study of leadership

5 Major Categories of Leadership Research (Bryman, 1996)

Trait

Behaviour

Contingency

Charismatic/Transformative

Shared/Distributed

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The trajectory of leadership theory is not linear, but, rather, follows endless swings between leader-centric and follower-centric models often based on new thinking about work design and organizational change. Thus, theories of leadership and disruptive organizational change are inseparably intertwined (Parry, 2011).

Leader-centred perspectives

Contingency and situational perspectives

Follower-centric perspectives

Mapping the changing study of leadership

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Critical leadership studies (CLS)

It has always been the case of assuming functionalist approach to leading people as functionalism assumes that organizations are unitary wholes, characterized by compliance, consensus and order.

However, CLS critiques mainstream orthodoxies and the power relations through which leadership dynamics are frequently rationalized, often reproduced and sometimes resisted – viewing organizations as arenas of domination, inequality, tension and conflict. The focus is on power, subordination and exploitation (Tadajewski et al. 2011) and to ‘decolonise’ (Gopal, 2017) prevailing stories, to ask difficult questions of society and ourselves – addressing the intersection of class, gender and race in work, organizational design and power structures that is the reality of organizational life.

Power, leadership and ideology

Gender and leadership

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The employment relationship

Constructed within work organizations.

A mutually advantageous transaction in a free market, a partnership of employers and employees with shared interests, a negotiation over ‘wage-effort’ between parties with competing interests, or an unequal power relation embedded in complex socio-economic inequalities (Budd and Bhave, 2013).

Ongoing actor relationships

‘Paradox of consequences’

Balance of power between actors

Organized life is recognized as an arena of complex reciprocal human relations

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Organizational Leadership

John Bratton

Part 1

Contextualising leadership

2

Strategic management, innovation and leadership

Chapter 2

3

Learning outcomes

After completing this chapter, you should be able to:

Explain the external and internal contexts of work organizations and the potential implications for leader-followers relations and behaviours;

Discuss the proposition that neoliberalism has shaped the role of leadership

Analyze the factors driving innovation and the leaders’ roles in facilitating the process

4

Introduction

Until recently, academic interest in the role of context has been ‘limited’ to examining the links between economic-political crises and charismatic leadership (Conger, 2011). This is because few leadership scholars have a ‘macro’ or political economy background and, further, any contextual investigations are complicated by the fact that individual leaders and followers will perceive the relative importance of any contextual changes differently.

The aim of this chapter is to provide a sketch of the contexts that affects leadership dynamics. But we also have to bear in mind that corporate leaders attempt to change the external context. The chapter proceeds to examine innovation, its drivers and the role of leadership in promoting innovation.

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Strategic management

Whether in private or public sector organizations, a successful strategy is consistent with the organization’s environment and with its internal goals, resources, capabilities and shared values. But an important antecedent is corporate ideology that influences strategic decisions by senior executives.

Strategic management is best defined as a continuous process that requires the constant adjustment of three major, interdependent poles: the values of senior management, the resources available and the environment (Figure 2.1).

6

Strategic management

7

Strategic management

Environment operates at macro (external to an organization, i.e. industry level, economic) and micro level (specific environment, i.e. processes within the organization). Elements in the macro environment constantly penetrate into the micro environment, and affect an individual organization.

Conventional Strategic Management Process:

Mission and Goals

Organization’s direction and outcomes to be accomplish

Environmental Analysis

Macro – STEEPLE

Micro – SWOT or PRIMO-F

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Strategic management

Strategic Formulation

Evaluation of factors and choices made to meet goals

Strategy Implementation

Leadership – adaptation and development of a strategy, and gaining support and commitment of those who are expected to carry it out

Strategy Evaluation

Activity that determines whether the actual change and performance matches what has been planned to what extent

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Strategic management

However, this process only shows how strategic management should be done rather than describing what is actually done by senior managers.

Again, strategy is a political process undertaken by people with power and who are influenced by ideology.

10

Macro environment

Socio-cultural, Technology, Economic, Ecology, Politics, Legal, Ethical

Micro environment

People, Resources, Innovation, Marketing, Operations – Finance & Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats

A framework for studying strategy and leadership

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A framework for studying strategy and leadership

A hierarchy of strategy

Corporate-level strategy

Business-level strategy

Functional-level strategy

Team-level strategy

Levels of leadership

Organizational performance

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A framework for studying strategy and leadership

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The nature of innovation

Innovation can be defined as the process of coming up with good, new ideas and making them work technically and commercially (Tidd and Bessant, 2018). Innovation therefore only counts as innovation, if it produces something that ultimately will be sold to customers, or, in the public sector, that will result in ‘more for less’ (Parker, 2018, p. 30).

Incremental innovations enable organizations to ‘do things better’. Over time, and in cumulative form, incremental innovations can produce significant changes. Breakthrough innovations enable organizations to ‘do things different’ (Bessant, 2003).

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The nature of innovation

Product innovation

Process innovation

Disruptive innovation is a common pattern of innovation (Christensen, 2016).

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The external and internal contexts driving or disables innovation

External

Globalization

Market opportunities

Competitive pressures

Changes in laws and regulations

Changes in available technologies

Internal

Available knowledge and resources

Positive innovation strategies

Organizational cultures and practices

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The leaders’ roles in innovation processes

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The leaders’ roles in innovation processes

Individuals in leadership roles therefore need to be able to work well together in order to exercise shared leadership (Bolden and O’Regan, 2016).

Leadership of different types is thought to be needed at different stages of the innovation process.

There need to be a balance of exploration (search for new knowledge and ideas) and exploitation (of what is already known), also known as ambidexterity to realize an innovation process.

E.g. Transformation and transactional leadership

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Evaluation and criticism

Neoliberalism has been criticised as not just as something that has created the atomization of labour through strict regulation and strengthen management’s ‘right to manage’; it is also emphasized to be more than just the economic system – it has a political and ideological agenda.

This leads to corporate ideology where the major beliefs and values provided by leaders form the frame of reference for decision-making and action (lets us to understand how the employment relationship is managed).

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Evaluation and criticism

This idea continues to be aided by other organizations such as business schools, ‘think tanks’ and the media as “apparatus of justification” to continue spreading and formulation of these neoliberal ideas, such as shareholder value – illustrating that this is the way to do things and how the world is viewed.

Power blind becomes an important matter in discussion of the strategy literature.

Charismatic leaders also are romanticized as innovation enablers, while other key variables such as employees with creativity or the state is being ignored or downplayed.

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Organizational Leadership

John Bratton

1

Part 1

Contextualising leadership

Power and leadership

Chapter 3

3

Learning outcomes

After completing this chapter, you should be able to:

Recognise and explain the types of power within leadership processes

Understand and explain the different perspectives on power

Describe the evolution of studies of power and leadership as a field of learning

Understand and explain the concept of organisational politics, its relationship to power and leadership

Identify contemporary challenges around power and leadership

4

Introduction

What is power? Power is generally defined as the capacity or the potential to influence others in relation to their beliefs, attitudes or activities.

Critical leadership scholars contend that orthodox leadership theories (trait, behavioural, contingency, charismatic) adhere to traditional hierarchical and bureaucratic control systems and take the asymmetrical power relationship within the leader-follower dyadic as natural and unproblematic (Collinson, 2011; Gordon, 2011; Hardy and Clegg, 1996).

5

Introduction

The literature on non-traditional follower-centric and team theories of leadership espouses the sharing of power between leaders and followers.

Critical organization scholars, however, contend that non-traditional approaches ‘blur’ power relations and generally continue to adopt an apolitical perspective to power.

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Conceptualizing power

Karl Marx

The making of history is made not just in relation to the physical world but also through the struggles that some social groups engage against others in circumstances of domination.

He argued that “class interests” – capitalist versus workers – follow from the social relations concerning the ownership and control of the means of production, and there conflict and power is structured into organization design.

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Conceptualizing power

Max Weber

The probability that one actor within a social relationship will be in a position to carry out his own will despite resistance, regardless of the basis on which this probability rests.

Theory of legitimate domination through legally enacted policies and regulations, found in modern bureaucracies, with two central elements:

the legitimacy of the organizational leader’s power, and the perception by followers that the leader’s authority was legitimate for those who were subject to it.

the creation of an “administrative apparatus” in which followers carry out the commands of the leader.

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Conceptualizing power

Max Weber

The treatment of ‘power’ as ‘authority’ to mean institutionalized ‘authority’ (from the mistranslated ‘Herrschaft’) became the basis for orthodox studies of power, in which power relates to authority, as a phenomenon informally rather than formally developed in the organization.

The ‘formal-informal’ distinction thus becomes the focus where “authority is the potentiality to influence based on a position, whereas power is the actual ability to influence based on a number of factors including, organizational position” in the hierarchy.

9

Conceptualizing power

Orthodox studies of ‘power’ in work organizations have located the bases of power in some relationship with, such that they enable ‘power’ to be ‘exercised’ or in specific socially authorized ‘resources’ that a worker may control.

E.g. , ‘A has power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would not otherwise do’ (Dahl, 1957, pp. 202–3). Power ‘over’, whether individually or collectively, refers to the control of one agent over others, and power ‘to’ is the capacity to realize ends.

Tendency to focus on ‘power over’ by critical scholars due to the concentration of its oppressiveness and injustice. However, Hearn (2012) argues that ‘power over’ and ‘power to’ are “inextricably bound together … it is the increase in power over, in ever more extensive and complex forms of hierarchic social organization, which has yielded massive increases in our power to”.

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Conceptualizing power

French and Raven

Focuses on the potential ability of one individual to influence another within a certain social situation.

This theory assumes that the particular ‘resource’ possessed by the individual that will have a utility in one situation, will have that usefulness in all situations.

It also assumes perfect knowledge on the part of all concerned being able to judge correctly the utility of the all resources in all situations (Clegg and Dunkerley, 1980).

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Conceptualizing power

Five bases of power – referent, expert, legitimate, reward and coercive

Giddens (1985) notes that all individuals may “have power”, but in an organizational context, power is influenced and constrained by the distribution of different types of resource.

E.g. “allocative resources” – control over physical things such as monetary reward, and “authoritative resources” – involve control over management practices.

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Conceptualizing power

Stephen Luke

Power is a “three-dimensional” phenomenon.

The one-dimensional view of power focuses on the individual’s ability to enact commands in observable conflicts.

A two-dimensional view of power extends the analyses by examining the ability of the social actors to control the agenda, which is a source of power overlooked in the pluralist model, one-dimensional perspective.

The three-dimensional view is the social processes in which those with power induce the powerless to behave or believe as the former wish, without coercion. This is achieved by a complex infrastructure of persuasion or justification.

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Different perspectives on power

Foucault

Power operates at all social institutions, at all levels of social interaction and through all individuals.

Power does not intrude from powerful individuals; it exudes from within.

Followers are not the victims of others’ power; rather, they are both the perpetrators and the victims of the very power that constrains their behaviour.

Power is associated with the web of policies, practices and procedures found within organizations.

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Different perspectives on power

Conceptualizing power as a relational activity, rather than as a possession, widens the focus of attention from the ‘who’ and the ‘why’ to ‘how’ of power, HR policies and practices, for instance, by which it operates.

Power also prevents some behaviours while at the same time positively encouraging others, both at the broadest political and historical levels and at the deepest level of individual identity.

Power constitutes what we know as a society, including, of course, how we think about work organizations – emphasizing that power and knowledge are closely interconnected, serving to reinforce each other.

Power is all-pervasive.

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Different perspectives on power

Gramsci

‘Hegemony’ that acknowledges the complexity and mixture of consensus and conflict, and hence power relations in a broad sense. This term expresses two types of power relations:

A group’s domination over other groups.

A group’s leadership.

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Different perspectives on power

It expresses the relationships of leadership and domination that produce a general sense of coordinated reality for most people. Besides that, it also represents an active, social process in which alternatives resistance against incorporation.

No leader can guarantee that followers will follow and any discussion of power and leadership has to acknowledge that leader-follower relations are inevitably characterized by structured power, cooperation and conflict.

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Different perspectives on power

Weber’s & Lukes’s concepts of powerFoucault’s and Gramsci’s concepts of power
Power is possessed by the individualPower is relational & pervasive
Power resides in social elitesPower is found in everyday social practice
Powerful dominates powerless, resistance is futilePeople build their own web of power, resistance challenges elites
Power is negative and repressivePower is creative & contributes to social order

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Different perspectives on power

Table 3.1 Traditional and Non-traditional Conceptualizations of Power

Source: Source: Adapted from Buchanan, D.A. and Badham, R.A. (2008) Power, Politics and Organizational Change: Winning the Turf Game, London: Sage.

Weber’s & Lukes’s concepts of powerFoucault’s and Gramsci’s concepts of power
Power is visible, exercised when neededPower is imperceptible through everyday routines
Knowledge of power sources is empoweringKnowledge buttresses the web of power

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Power and management

Obedience is central to an analysis of the construction of power in leader-follower relations (Clegg, 1998).

In organization situations, French and Raven’s coercive power commonly implies the ability of a leader to inflict on subordinates feared penalties for disobedient behaviour or control over subordinates. Crucially, it is the subordinate’s dependency for coercion to be effective. However, uses of power imbalance to coerce may involve bullying behaviours that undermine a subordinate’s dignity and self-esteem (Bolton, 2005).

20

Power and management

Bassman (1992, p. 2) observes, “one common thread in all abusive relationships is the element of dependency. The abuser controls some important resources in the [target’s] life; the [target] is dependent on the abuser”. There are also research evidences that suggest that leader-coercive behaviour and bullying behaviours occur in workplaces because of the inability of the victim to defend her or himself due to a power imbalance (Branch et al., 2013). It is the analysis of dependency, the processes of social interaction, the minutiae of everyday work experience and the often misogynistic norms that informs its conduct that provide a more cognizant understanding of leader-coercive and bully behaviours in organizations.

21

Power and management

This also serves as a reminder that not all of leader-follower social interactions rest upon charismatic appeal or the ritual of deference or adulation. They also remind us that leaders perpetrate coercive-bully acts and too often this is interpreted as representing a “few bad apples”, as though socio-cultural influences are of no importance. But they are embedded within organizational cultures and processes, which in turn form part of wider societal processes (Bolton, 2005). Bolton also highlighted that the vagueness of the employment contract gets intensified within the cauldron of coercion and abuse.

22

Power and management

The effect of leader-coercive behaviour and bullying on recipients:

can range from psychological stress-related symptoms to physical harm (Hogh et al., 2011).

can also affect employees’ loyalty, commitment, and performance (Rayner, 1997).

affect organizational performance through an increase in absenteeism, high turnover and the cost of recruitment and training interventions, as well as loss of productivity (Salin and Hoel, 2011).

E.g. Tesco executives Chris Bush and John Scouler

23

Power and management

Gordon (2002; 2011) found that power in leadership is generally debated in two perspectives:

Traditionally, power is seen as a phenomenon within hierarchical structures and control systems of organization.

Second focus is on the role of dispersed leadership theories and their emphasis on the promotion of empowerment through the transfer of leadership responsibilities to lower levels with post-bureaucratic organizations (Bryman, 1996).

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Power and management

Orthodox Theories

Presents leaders with dualistic position of privilege within organisations – considered to be superior to other followers either through natural ability or particular attributes.

The historical nature of power is deemed to be ‘natural’ and ‘unproblematic’ – leading to limitations to reflections of surface-level issues and occurrences. Gordon (2011, p. 200) added on that the theme describes of what is occurring or what ‘ought’ to occur and lacks of abundant insight into the problematic interplay between leadership and power.

Power is assumed to be legitimate for leadership figures but illegitimate for organizational followers or for trade unions challenging managerial prerogative.

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Power and management

Dispersed Leadership Theories

Focus primarily on self-leadership and team-based leadership approaches:

Self-leadership – employees take responsibility for their own work processes and direction.

Team-leadership – centres around autonomous work teams, each of which has their own leader.

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Power and management

The sharing of leadership responsibilities ensures that the emphasis is put on the process of leadership rather than the attributes or behaviours of the ‘leader’.

However, this also assumes that power must also be shared and that the process of sharing power will be unproblematic.

Power is something that is embedded historically and socially in the structures around organisational actors; it is closely related to the concept of dependency and therefore pervades activity and impacts on attempts to disperse leadership.

27

Power and management

Flemming and Spicer (2014) illustrated that there is a clear distinction in the literature between episodic theories of power (where power is directly exercised) and systematic forms of influence (where power is concealed within often enduring institutional structures), through identification of four sites of organizational power:

Power ‘in’ organisations

Power ‘through’ organisations

Power ‘over’ organisations

Power ‘against’ organisations

They also recognized that there are roles of other types of authority within organizational leadership, how they interlink and overlap or contrast within.

28

Power and management

Weberian social theory,

the bureaucratic organization is viewed as a ‘social tool’ and an expression of rational thought and action. Any follower in a large organization will encounter a complex flow of power down, up and across organization hierarchies (Clegg, 1998). Power is part of the ‘rules of the game’ that both enable and constrain social action in the workplace (Clegg, 1975).

McKinlay and Starkey (1998),

found that Foucault’s conception of power is that it is most potent and efficient when it operates through bureaucratic rules rather than coercion or ‘force majeure’. Power is associated with practices and procedures – control of human capability rather than coordination of resources.

29

Power and management

Townley (1994),

discovered that following Foucault, for individuals to be manageable, they must be known and to be known, they must be rendered visible – thus conceptualizes human resources management (HRM) is designed to close the gap between the expectation of performance and what is realized.

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