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Journal 8: Writing the Literature Review

How to Write a Literature Review - YouTube

A Literature Review is used to show your readers how much research you did on the topic. It proves to your readers that you have looked at many sources and are therefore qualified to write on this topic. For our paper, you are asked to cover 3 topics in your literature review (one topic per paragraph, described below) and to paraphrase from all 10 of the required sources.

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Instructions

1. Watch the Literature Review videos in our  1302 LibGuide  by cllcking on the tab “Literature Review DIY” and clicking on the videos.

2. Watch  this video on writing the Literature Review  . Please note: the video was made for Spring 2021. Therefore, the course shell and the Paper 2 assignment sheet look a little different. The literature review is briefly explained at the top of p.3 on  our current assignment sheet . The example paper the video talks about  is linked here .

3. Line up all 10 of your required sources. There must be: 5 peer-reviewed articles, 2 book chapters by different authors or 2 more peer-reviewed articles, and 3 fact-based media sources.

4. Divide the 10 sources into the following categories:

a. Sources that tell why the research question is puzzling.

b. Sources that give an overview of the arguments that have already been made about the topic of protest movements.

c. Sources that give an overview of information already said about your thesis.

5. Each category above will be one paragraph. 

6. Each of the 3 body paragraphs of the Literature Review begins with a topic sentence referencing the category. For example: Many researchers have been puzzled by how government policy leads to protest. (Note: the words “researchers” and “puzzled by” connect readers to the required topic of paragraph 1 of the Literature Review).

7. Now you are ready to write. Open your Paper 2 Word Doc and below the Introduction, write the heading Literature Review (bold and centered).

8. Switch back to left alignment and begin writing your first paragraph that tells why your sources consider your research question (or thesis) puzzling. Remember that except for the topic sentence, all sentences should be paraphrases of your sources. That means that each sentence except for your topic sentence should be cited.

9. Do the same for the two other paragraphs, the second of which gives an overview of the arguments your sources have made about the topic of protest movements and the third of which that gives an overview of what your sources have already said about your thesis. Remember that except for the topic sentence, all sentences should be paraphrases of your sources. That means each sentence except for your topic sentence should be cited.

10. Make sure all 10 sources from the Reference page you wrote for Journal 7 are cited in the 3 paragraphs of the Lit Review.

11. Attach your Paper 2 Word Doc to Journal 8 with the Lit Review complete.

The Health of the Nation Depends on Protest

Joan Blackwell

University of Houston-Downtown

ENG 1302: Composition II

Dr. Wedes

November 9, 2020

Abstract

This paper argues that protest movements which form to improve the economic equality and health of a nation should be looked upon as positive, hopeful forces for change and have government support. Movements protesting economic inequality like the Order of the Phoenix should be looked upon positively because they are the only hope of reversing injustice in nations where the government can be bought by the wealthiest 2%. Protest movements against economic inequality should be supported by the majority of citizens because protesters do not instigate violence, government authorities do and they help end racial profiling by forcing government agencies to retrain workers in more effective, non-racially motivated methods of criminal detection. Health privilege protests must gain more traction than they currently have so that when a health crisis such as spattergroit arrives the majority of a nation’s citizenry can get care that not only allows them to survive, but does not render them bankrupt. It is unreasonable for the Ministry of Magic to insist that protests be genteel and peaceful when they do nothing to care for the bulk of its citizenry. This paper recommends that libraries and community centers pool resources to provide classes which explain how government policies destroy livelihoods and teach about the role of activism in a democratic republic. The paper further recommends that citizens should join a protest movement of their choice in order to see for themselves how protest movements work from the inside.

Keywords: protest movements, economic inequality, healthcare protests

The Health of the Nation Depends on Protest

On this earth there is a nation where only 2% of the population can afford to get seriously ill. When this population gets life-threatening illnesses like spattergroit or serious injury from broom accidents, they must appeal to their equally poor friends and family to donate their hard-earned galleons to a Gofundme they have set up or else suffer debilitating, often devastating, life changes. Moreover, of the 98% of poor people in this nation, a further 52% are afraid to report criminal activity for fear of being racially profiled as criminals. This nation is today’s Wizarding Community, where the majority of the nation lives in poverty and fear (Potterwatch, 2020). Fortunately, these injustices cannot be perpetrated in secret. People of decency and morals see what is happening and fight, via protest movements, to correct these injustices. Research shows that 72% of protest movements grow out of injustices ordained by the government that severely affect a nation’s health and livelihood (Lupin & Black, 2010). Thus the Wizarding Community, where 98% of the population lives on the brink of financial ruin, is rife with protest movements such as Potterwatch and the Order of the Phoenix (Potterwatch, 2020). Nations that force large populations to the edge of survival should expect to be set upon by massive protest movements. This paper argues that protest movements which form to improve the economic equality and health of a nation should be looked upon as positive, hopeful forces for change and have government support.

Literature Review

Many researchers have been puzzled by how government policy leads to protest. Although many causes have been explored, researchers have had a hard time pinpointing an exact formula leading to protest due to a lack of accurate data (Patil et al. 2018, Lovegood, 2016). Journalism such as The Daily Prophet and journalists like Rita Skeeter cannot be trusted to accurately depict protest movements because they tend to view protests through emotive, rather than objective lenses, in their efforts to stir up emotions and increase readership (Potterwatch, 2020). Also, reports on protest movements are usually slanted towards one party (Potterwatch, 2020), protest leaders often operate in secrecy out of fear of retaliation and are therefore hard to find or interview (Granger, 2013), or, the protest leaders themselves are emotive rather than factual (Patil et al., 2018). All of these factors lead to a dearth of data concerning protest movements.

Various arguments have sprung up around the question of the formation of protest movements in restrictive nations. According to Snape and Dumbledore (2010), 62% of government-inspired protests stem from when a government fails to act against a clear injustice, such as when the Ministry of Magic failed to denounce muggle-born racism , or when it fails to protect its people against an internal threat, such as when Minister for Magic Cornelius Fudge denied the return of the wizard calling himself Lord Voldemort. Snape and Dumbledore’s (2010) data, however, disagrees with Karkaroff’s (2012) figures, claiming that protests form against a government mainly due to the level of fascism and autocracy exhibited by the platform of the party that controls the nation.

Two specific types of privilege are most likely to spark needed protests: economic and health (Lupin & Black, 2010). Economic factors that form protest movements are linked to the privileging of one race, one religion, and/or one gender over all other races, religions, and/or genders (Weasley & Weasley, 2007). Protests over economic factors such as these have affected 77 countries and countless civilizations (Snape & Dumbledore, 2010). Health privilege protests, on the other hand, usually center around the rights of women to control reproductive rights (McGonigall et al., 2017), but also cover situations such as pandemic control, pharmaceutical drug pushing, and inadequacies surrounding national healthcare plans (Pomfrey et al., 2020). If more nations stood in solidarity with economic and healthcare protest movements in restrictive nations, restrictive governments would be less likely to form because they would know that the world is watching and judging them (Lupin & Black, 2010).

Argument

For the Wizarding Community, the year 2020 has been fraught with protest movements and along with these movements come criticism. Many have claimed that because violence breaks out around protest movements, the protesters are to blame, but few look at the ways in which the unjust government is responsible for the violence. If the Ministry of Magic had not passed a resolution where muggle-borns were not alloted the same rights as others, would there have been a need for a protest movement to promote muggle-born rights? And, once the movement sprang into action, if the Ministry of Magic had not sent out Death Eaters, Aurors, and Dementors to attack the protesters, would the protesters have felt a need to violently defend themselves? This paper argues that violence around protest movements would not be at issue if the governments listened reasonably to protesters and, as a result, resolved to distribute health and economic benefits equally amongst its citizenry.

Movements protesting economic inequality should be looked upon positively because they are the only hope of reversing injustice in nations where the government can be bought by the wealthiest 2%. Not having a policy to protect non-pureblood families has meant that muggle-borns in the Wizarding Community have been discriminated against in both education and the job market for hundreds of years (Karkaroff, 2012). Mary Cattermole, the daughter of a Muggle couple who owned a small, family-owned grocery in Manchester, was discovered to be a witch and admitted to Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. But she soon found that her schoolmates mocked her for being muggle-born and called her by the racial epithet “mudblood.” She was barely able to make friends, much less have boyfriends. After leaving Hogwarts, she met and married a half-blood wizard who, due to his blood status, was unable to find a job that paid any higher than magical maintenance (Potterwatch, 2020). An astounding 98% of the Wizarding Community find themselves in the Cattermoles’ position (Weasley & Weasley, 2007), living hand-to-mouth, praying their health holds out and that nothing unexpected happens that they cannot afford. The protest movement known as the Order of the Phoenix have repeatedly pushed for the Wizarding Community to adopt a set of policies similar to Affirmative Action in the United States. Affirmative Action is a policy that protects groups that have been historically discriminated against based on their gender, race, creed, or nationality from being excluded from education or unemployment (Snape & Dumbledore, 2010). The Order of the Phoenix should be looked on positively for trying to institute a policy capable of helping the 98% of wizards and witches being discriminated against so that they can have quality lives and higher paying jobs.

Protest movements against economic inequality should be supported by the majority of citizens because protesters do not instigate violence, government authorities do. The Order of the Phoenix has been strenuously fighting to destroy anti-muggle-born policies by peacefully suggesting policy changes such as Affirmative Action. However, this movement faces constant criticism in The Daily Prophet and on Ministry-owned news channels because, at times, the protests that the Order stages get violent. Not talked about in the media, however, is that in every instance where violence has broken out at an Order of the Phoenix protest, the violence was caused by the aggressive, life-threatening response of the Ministry’s own enforcement squads, the Aurors and Dementors (Potterwatch, 2020). Instead of sending armies of violently-trained wizards and monsters to deal with protesters, the Ministry should engage in meaningful dialog. Statistics show that there are not enough pure-blood wizards to fill the jobs that are often denied muggle-borns simply because of their blood status (Karkaroff, 2012). If there are plenty of jobs to go around and not enough pure-bloods to take them, it stands to reason that no pure-bloods will lose their jobs if muggle-borns are allowed equal status. Instead of listening to reason or at least engaging in non-violent dialog, the Ministry provokes the very violence it claims to hate, blames the violence on protest movements, and refuses to consider muggle-born rights (Granger, 2013). Groups like the Order of the Phoenix should be looked upon positively, instead of being blamed from for violence they do not cause.

Protest movements fighting economic inequality should be supported because they help end racial profiling by forcing government agencies to retrain workers in more effective, non-racially motivated methods of criminal detection. In 2011, a lesser-known protest group, Potterwatch, began working against wrongful convictions in the Wizarding Community (Lovegood, 2016). Discovering that 77% of convicts in the wizard prison Azkaban were muggle-born or half-bloods, they took it upon themselves to examine the legal cases of every one of those prisoners and they learned that 62% of the 77% were placed in Azkaban on shaky evidence (Potterwatch, 2020). Potterwatch recruited lawyers to help them retry the cases, but for every conviction they were able to overturn, there were 2 that, even in the face of overwhelming evidence of innocence, the district attorneys refused to retry. According to Potterwatch attorney Kingsley Shacklebolt, “Blood status profiling runs so deep in the Magical Judicial System that it causes the very people hired as impartial judges and attorneys to act emotively rather than on the logic of the evidence” (as cited in Potterwatch, 2020). Clearly, the criminal justice system needs retraining so that they stop relying on blood status profiling and are able to impartially consider the evidence as it is their job to do. Protest movements like Potterwatch must be supported if the Wizarding Community wants to end economic, educational, and criminal justice inequality in its nation.

Health privilege protests must gain more traction than they currently have so that when a health crisis such as spattergroit arrives the majority of a nation’s citizenry can get care that not only allows them to survive, but does not render them bankrupt. Recently, the Minister of Magic Pius Thicknesse, came down with spattergroit. He was immediately whisked to St. Mungo’s Hospital for Magical Maladies and Injuries, was given an experimental drug not available to the wider wizarding community that costs 10,000 Galleons a drop (the typical person needs 3 drops before they show improvement), and put into a private isolation room with purified air (6,000 Galleons) where he was given a drug cocktail costing 5,000 Galleons every hour for 24-hours (Pomfrey et al., 2020). According to healers Poppy Pomfrey, Alexander Smethwick, and Augustus Pye, all of whom work for St. Mungo’s and have been treating spattergroit patients since the beginning of the epidemic, even though Thicknesse was only mildly symptomatic, he got the care that medical personnel can only give to patients who are dying (Pomfrey et al., 2020, p. 99). Patients who are not the MInister for Magic or whose insurance cannot afford to pay the exorbitant costs of treatment do not get Thicknesse’s treatment until it is a last resort. Medical personnel must simply hope that the symptoms in poor patients won’t worsen and they won’t need any expensive treatments. But according to McGonagall et al. (2017) this protocol given to the poor suffering from spattergroit results in a 96% fatality rate. Both Potterwatch and the Order of the Phoenix have organized protests to equalize healthcare during this pandemic to prevent fewer deaths. Yet instead of working with Potterwatch and the Order to change this protocol in order to save more lives, the protesters are violently attacked by Ministry Aurors and Dementors. Protest movements such as Potterwatch and Order of the Phoenix must be supported rather than denigrated if economic and healthcare equality is to be gained.

Conclusions

It is unreasonable for the Ministry of Magic to insist that protests be genteel and peaceful when they do nothing to care for the bulk of its citizenry. In fact, the Ministry of Magic deliberately sets up systems that favor the rich and keep the great majority of its people in poverty, a situation that guarantees angry uprisings (Snape & Dumbledore, 2010). For example, the Ministry impoverishes its citizenry by forcing it to pay the bulk of the nation’s taxes and giving tax cuts to billionaires (Karkaroff, 2012), creating policies that marginalize muggle-borns and half-bloods to where they cannot find living-wage jobs (Potterwatch, 2020), and by favoring the needs of corporations like pharmaceutical and insurance conglomerates so that the bulk of its citizenry cannot afford to heal itself when it becomes injured or sick (Pomfrey et al., 2020). For these reasons, it is unreasonable for the Ministry of Magic and the people who support it to claim that protesters are immoral when violence erupts. In making these claims the Ministry attempts to deflect eyes away from their own immorality in not caring for the citizenry by blaming protesters who only want to make it possible for the citizenry to be reasonably cared for by its Ministry.

Although this research was able to give an overview of the ways in which protest movements take the blame for violence and disruption which rightly belongs to the Ministry of Magic, it lacks in depth studies of each method the Ministry uses to ensure that the wealth stays concentrated among its cronies and away from the bulk of its citizenry. Such studies are crucial because they would demonstrate to citizens that their rights, livelihood, and health are severely affected by the Ministry and perhaps would encourage them to join or at least support protest movements that work to change Ministry policies in their favor. It is hoped that such studies will be forthcoming.

Recommendations

Libraries and community centers should pool resources to provide classes that explain how government policies destroy livelihoods and teach about the role of activism in a democratic republic. Currently, citizens are unable to study events properly because internet algorithms have forced citizens into propaganda bubbles where they get select bits of information, usually in the form of memes, and are unable to see any ideas or events other than what the bubble provides (Granger, 2013). Library and community center classes on civics would take people outside of these algorithm bubbles and bring them back to the basics US government, teaching them about the constitution, their basic human rights, and the ways in which the government has shut down their rights. These classes would also demonstrate how more successful governmental models in other countries around the world create better lives for citizens. This class could invite protest movement leaders to come in and calmly explain the function of the movement, its aims, and its views on violence so that the citizens could get first hand knowledge of how protest movements actually work.

Citizens should join a protest movement of their choice in order to see for themselves how protest movements work from the inside. They don’t need to carry a sign, but they could join a march, observe what people say and how they react, talk to the protesters and find out what their concerns and aims are. To find a protest in their region, citizens can go to rallylist.com, scroll to the bottom of the page, and put in their state. For example, there is a George Floyd Act Rally taking place at the Texas State Capitol in Austin on March 25, 2021. Attending this rally would help citizens who are skeptical of protest see first hand what goes on at one instead of judging the actions of protesters they have never met from behind a computer screen, which causes the type of anger that leads to racism and violence (Patil et al., 2018). Instead of relying on anti-protest movement propaganda in the form of memes and government sponsored media sources like The Daily Prophet, people should get out from behind their computer screens and do their own field research. As the old saying goes, we cannot know anything about other people until we walk a mile in their shoes. People who criticize protest movements can literally do this, by joining a march and seeing for themselves what the mentality of a protest movement actually is.

References

Granger, H. (2013, December 5). Fear of Persecution among Protest Leaders. Witch Weekly.

Karkaroff, I. (2012). Factors leading to anti-government protests. In Anti-Government Protest Movements: Causes and Effects (pp. 545–548). Flourish & Blotts.

Lovegood, X. (2016, January 1). The Trouble with Reporting on Protest Movements. The Quibbler. https://thequibbler.com

Lupin, R., & Black, S. (2010). How to Stage a Successful Government Protest. Flourish and Blotts.

McGonigall, M., Weasley, M., & Sprout, P. (2017). Health crises in the age of protest. Magical Health Journal25(2), 56–64.

Patil, P., Patil, P., & Corner, M. (2018). Emotions and protests: A psychological approach. Journal of Protest and Psychology5(3), 145–154.

Pomfrey, P., Smethwick, A., & Pye, A. (2020). Causes of health protests in the magical community. Magical Health Quarterly54(6), 98–120.

Potterwatch. (2020). The Daily Prophet, Rita Skeeter, and the Triwizard Tournament. Potterwatch. https://www.potterwatch.com

Snape, S., & Dumbledore, A. (2010). Protest and injustice: A guide for governments who want to keep its citizens happy. Transfiguration Today12(1), 78–123.

Weasley, G., & Weasley, F. (2007). Economic factors that spark protest. The Journal of Magical Protest51(3), 65–74.

English 1302 Fall 2021 Dr. Wedes /4

Paper 2: The Researched Argument

Due Dates

DraftDue DateDocument FormatSubmission InfoGrading
Rough Draft10/1111.59pmThis due date is firm if you want points for the rough draft & peer review.Word Doc,in APA FormatPosted to Paper 2>Revising Skills>Peer Review Paper 2– share the draft to the group or else we will not be able to read your draft.5 DW points for turning in a draft.5 DW points for reviewing a draft.
Final Draft10/15You will be unable to begin Paper 3 until the final draft is submitted.Word Doc,in APA FormatPosted toPaper 2>Revising Skills>paper 2 Final Draft Turn In .Letter grade worth 20% (200 pts) of your total course grade.

This is an A+CE Signature Assignment: The purpose an A+CE assignment: To develop your ability to introduce, integrate, evaluate, discuss and reflect on information from academic texts in order to make a successful academic argument; to practice the type of research and writing that is often a part of upper-division courses; to be able to distinguish peer-reviewed academic research from non-peer-reviewed and educated-audience sources.

Purpose

To discover through research and then argue in favor of a unique position you are taking on protest movements. To learn how to present a STEM-style research paper such as might be written for science, technology, engineering, or mathematics courses.

Please note: For this paper you will not be focusing on one specific protest movement. Rather, you must research a theory that you have about protest movements as a whole to see if the theory holds water. For example, when do protest movements have a right to commit violence? Or at what point can a protest be considered an insurrection (like what happened on January 6, 2021)? There are hundreds of such questions that you might have about protest movements. Choose one that does not have a yes/no answer and research it. You may use individual protest movements as an example to illustrate a point within the body paragraphs of the argument section of the paper, but do not write a thesis about one protest movement. The thesis must be about the question/theory you were researching. This paper is not Paper 1 and should not look like Paper 1.

Sources

To educate yourself about your theory/question about protest movements, you must do research in academic sources. Paper 2 requires you to use the following 10 sources:

· 5 peer-reviewed articles (you learned how to find these in Library Unit 1 ).

· 2 book chapters from non-fiction books or 2 more peer-reviewed articles (see Library Unit 2 ).

· 3 fact-based media sources. Do not use media sources that are propagandistic and/or politically biased (see Library Unit 2 ).

What happens if the sources you use are the wrong ones or you don’t have all the required sources for the paper? The paper receives a failing grade.

What do you do if you can’t find all of the required sources for the paper? Email me at [email protected] or set up a Zoom meeting with me.

Developing a thesis

· Look at what others are already saying about protest movements. Test what others are saying about protest movements by looking up facts written by people who are not politically biased (peer-reviewed articles, fact-based media sources, non-fiction book sources).

· What interesting ideas did you discover in Journal 6 , your peer-reviewed articles, fact-based media, and non-fiction books? Focus on information that your readers might not be aware of regarding protest movements.

· Consider your audience. Whatever thesis you decide on must be geared toward an academic audience, one that wants to see solid evidence for every claim that you make.

· Develop a thesis that must be answered through complex research and discussion. Use “how” and “why” to turn your questions about protest movements into a potential argumentative theory. Do this by asking open-ended questions about protests. For example: “Why do some groups choose violent over non-violent protest?” or “How do protest movements fail?” or “How do protest movements succeed?” or “How should authorities respond to protests given the First Amendment right of people ‘peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances?’” or maybe, simply, “How do protest movements work?” (Feel free to develop your own question)

· Evaluate your thesis. Ask yourself:

· Is your thesis on topic? It’s purpose must match the assignment: To discover through research and then argue in favor of a unique position you are taking on protest movements.

· Is your thesis focused? It must be very specific so that there are searchable terms within it for you to use to find fact-based information on it.

· Is your thesis complex enough? It cannot be answered with a simple, one-word answer like “yes” or “no.” It must require research and analysis. The question/theory must not be answerable from your own knowledge.

· Are there four unique ways you can support your thesis? The argument section is 5 paragraphs long (an introduction and 4 body paragraphs). You must be able to write 4 paragraphs that are ¾ of a page long each to support your thesis without being repetitive.

Structure of the Paper

This paper is 14 paragraphs long: the Abstract (1 paragraph, to be placed first, but written last), the Introduction (1 paragraph), the Literature Review (3 paragraphs), the Argument (5 paragraphs), the Conclusions (2 paragraphs), the Recommendations (2 paragraphs). Paragraphs should be ½ to ¾ of a page long. To learn how to write each paragraph, you will go to the Paper 2>Writing Skills folder on Blackboard and complete each of the 6 units, including Journal 8. After you have completed all units in the Writing Skills folder, you should have a complete and correct rough draft of Paper 1.

Paper 2 must be organized in APA 7 format and in this order:

· Title Page (on a page by itself, containing the title, your name, the school name, the course name, my name, and the due date of the final draft).

· Abstract (brief, 1 paragraph summary of your paper including keywords, on a page by itself)

· Introduction (1 paragraph, with title of essay written above it in bold and including either an offset quote, statistic, or anecdote from one of your sources and the thesis as the last sentence)

· Literature Review (3 paragraphs, telling why your sources consider the thesis puzzling and giving an overview of arguments sources have already made and what your sources have already said about your thesis).

· Argument (5 paragraphs including an introduction and 4 body paragraphs supporting your thesis).

· Conclusions (2 paragraphs, 1 discussing a major discovery uncovered by your research and 1 limitations paragraph talking about what your research was unable to discover).

· Recommendations (2 paragraphs where you discuss two specific actions that readers can take to enact change in regards to your thesis about protest movements and tell them step-by-step how to take those actions).

· References (see Journal 7 , consisting of your 10 required sources).

To get a visual of the format, click on the Example Paper . Please note: Anyone who attempts to copy the thesis, arguments, recommendations, or conclusions or use the sources cited in the Example Paper will be charged with plagiarism and asked to write a whole new paper.

Document Format

· Word Doc

· 1” margins, left aligned.

· Indented, double-spaced paragraphs.

· No extra line spaces between headings, paragraphs, references, or titles. Use this video for help.

· 12 pt professional-looking font (Times New Roman, Arial, Calibri).

Grammar

Pronouns, wordiness, vagueness:

· No personal pronouns may be used anywhere in this paper. Personal pronouns include: I, me, my, mine, you, your, you’re, yours, we, us, our, ours.

· Directly worded, specific sentences. No wordiness, no vagueness. Use this link for help with wordy sentences: Wordy Sentences

Other grammar

Grammar errors should not impede the readers’ ability to understand your paper.

Here is a list of grammar errors to watch for and links to explanations about them:

· Apostrophes (possessives, contractions)

· Plural words (s on the end)

· Comma splices, fused sentences (run-ons)

· Capitalization

· Fragments and vague pronouns (which, it, this)

Paper 2 and the Portfolio

This paper, heavily revised, must be included in your course portfolio (due on the class day) along with a reflection essay. This portfolio is also the final exam and is worth

30% of your total course grade. Do not attempt to do this essay until after the final draft has been graded.

Grading Criteria is on page 4…

Grading Criteria

SkillsCriteriaHow you didPoints possible
Reading SkillsThe paper’s success proves that the writer closely followed the instructions on the Paper 2 assignment sheet.10
It is clear from the new ideas and specific details provided in the paper, that the student thoroughly researched this topic and learned some new and exciting information about it.20
Researching SkillsThe writer successfully researched Paper 2 as is proven by the 5 peer-reviewed articles, 2 book chapters or 2 more peer-reviewed articles, and 3 fact-based media sources that are paraphrased and/or quoted within the paper and appear on the Reference page.30
The writer provided an accurately formatted APA 7 Reference page after the Recommendations section of Paper 2 with all 10 required sources listed.10
Writing SkillsThe Abstract is brief, summarizes the thesis, topic sentences, conclusions (first paragraph), and recommendations. Has searchable keywords.10
The Introduction is engaging and intriguing and catches readers’ attention with an offset quote or an anecdote or a startling statistic.10
The thesis is the last sentence of the Introduction, is on topic, and is the focus of the entire 14-paragraph paper. The thesis is argumentative (takes a side), not factual or explanatory.10
The Literature Review is 3 paragraphs, each paragraph dealing with the topics as listed in Journal 8. All 10 required sources were paraphrased.20
The Argument section is 5 paragraphs, with a brief introduction & thesis and 4 focused, well-researched body paragraphs.10
The Argument section is clearly a product of research with sources integrated into each body paragraph. Each body paragraph argues for the topic sentence which is clearly connected to the thesis. It does not summarize any sources.10
The Conclusions section has one paragraph that describes an important realization made by the writer and cites the source that helped the writer reach that realization. It has a second paragraph that discusses the limitations of the writer’s study.10
The Recommendations section is two paragraphs long and discusses two concrete, physical actions readers can take and how to take those actions.10
Sources are correctly integrated into the paper in APA 7, including paraphrases and transitions (signal phrases) into quotes. No quote takes up more than 3 lines of the paper.10
Revising SkillsThe paper is complete: there are 14 paragraphs and a strong attempt has been made to ensure that each section is on topic and well-supported with sources.10
The writer wisely chose important areas of the paper to revise based on the comments they received during peer review.10
The writer made use of the Writing and Reading Center or used the links on the Paper 2 assignment sheet to edit for grammar, as is evidenced by the polished state of the essay.10
Total Pts200-179 pts = A; 178-159 pts = B; 158-139 pts = C; 138-119 pts = D; 118-0 pts = F200

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